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ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes Associate Degree of Applied Engineering (Renewable Energy Technologies) Lecture 24 – Fibre-reinforced composite materials. Fibre-reinforced composite materials. EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes.

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ENMAT101A Engineering Materials and ProcessesAssociate Degree of Applied Engineering (Renewable Energy Technologies)Lecture 24 – Fibre-reinforced composite materials

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Fibre-reinforced composite materials

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Fibre-reinforced composite materials (Higgins24)

Wood can be thought of as a fibre composite: Fibres are the cells (tracheids) and glued together by the matrix (lignin).

http://woodmagic.vt.edu

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Fibre-reinforced composite materials (Higgins24)

24.1.1 Man-made fibre-reinforced composites

• Matrix materials, such as thermosetting or thermoplastics polymers

and some low-melting point metals, reinforced with fibres of carbon,

glass or organic polymer.

• Polymers, usually thermosetting, reinforced with fibres or laminates

of woven textile materials.

• Vehicle tyres in which vulcanised rubber is reinforced with woven

textiles and steel wire.

• Materials such as concrete reinforced with steel rods.

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.2 Unidirectional Composites (Higgins24.2)

24.2.1 Relative density of composite

24.2.2 Tensile strength of composite

24.2.3 Modulus of composite

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.3 Fibres (Higgins24.3)

24.3.1 Glass fibre

24.3.2 Carbon fibre

24.3.3 Boron fibre

24.3.4 Aramid fibre (Kevlar)

24.3.5 Other fibres

Carbon

Aramid (Kevlar)

Glass

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.3 Fibres (Higgins24.3)

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.4 Matrix materials (Higgins24.4)

• It should be stable to a temperature at which the properties of the

fibre begin to deteriorate.

• It must be capable of resisting any chemical attack by its

environment.

• It should not be affected by moisture.

24.4.1 Thermosetting resins

24.4.2 Thermoplastic polymers

24.4.3 Metals

http://www.glowpaint.com.au

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.5 Mechanical properties (Higgins24.5)

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins24.6)

• Rovings. A 'roving' of glass fibres, which may be several kilometres

in length, consists of 'strands', or bundles of filaments wound on to a

'creel'. A 'strand' contains some 200 filaments, each about 10 um in

diameter. Bundles of continuous carbon fibres are known as 'tows'.

• Woven fabrics in various weave types.

• Chopped fibres, usually between 1 mm and 50 mm long.

Continuously produced sections (rod, tube or channel), or sheet,

from which required lengths can be cut. Such a process can only

produce composites which are anisotropic in their properties,

strength being in a direction parallel to the fibre direction.

Composites manufactured as individual components. Here the fibre

may be woven into a 'preform' which roughly follows the mould or

die contour. In this case, the mechanical properties will tend to be

multi-directional.

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins24.6)

24.6.1 Poltrusion

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.6 Fibre-composite manufacture (Higgins24.6)

24.6.2 'Hand-and-spray' placement

24.6.3 Press moulding

24.6.4 Resin-transfer moulding

24.6.5 Metal matrix composites

Fibreglass/polyester Boat Hull http://rampageous.com

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.7 Uses of fibre-reinforced composites (Higgins24.7)

The most important of these materials commercially are polymer matrix

composites reinforced with either glass, carbon or aramid fibres.

The following characteristics of fibre composites commend their use:

• Low relative density and hence high specific strength and modulus

of elasticity.

• Good resistance to corrosion.

• Good fatigue resistance, particularly parallel to the fibre direction.

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.7 Uses of fibre-reinforced composites (Higgins24.7)

This wind turbine blade is fibreglass – the fibres can be clearly seen. The tower itself is usually steel.

Oldenburg in northern Germany 2006

http://www.solaripedia.com/13/25/dangers_of_wind_power.html

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.8 Reinforced wood (Higgins24.8)

The development of strong synthetic resin adhesives some years ago

resulted in much progress in the use of timber as a constructional

material. Also called ‘engineered wood’.

24.8.1 Laminated wood

24.8.2 Plywood, blockboard and

particleboard

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.8 Reinforced wood (Higgins24.8)

24.8.3 Corrugated cardboard

Laminated boards

http://www.photos-public-domain.com

Complex anatomy of a carton.

Image: Carton Council

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.9 Reinforced concrete (Higgins24.9)

Steel reinforcing is designed to take tension, while concrete assumed to have zero tensile strength but takes compression.

Higgins

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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24.9 Reinforced concrete (Higgins24.9)

Compression tests on concrete

Ductile materials simply squash (barrel). Brittle materials often fracture at 45o (due to shear stress being much lower than compressive stress).

Compression is the standard test for concrete.

Compression test for Concrete

Wikipedia

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Concrete Test

High Strength Concrete

Concrete is not usually this strong, so it doesn’t usually explode like this…

The numbers: (Imperial/US units)

15.9 ksi or 200,000 lbs on a 4" diam cylinder.

Convert this to metric = 110Mpa

Concrete is usually about 20MPa, structural about 40MPa, and higher strength usually prefabricated since the W/C ratio must be very low (dry).

Compression test for Concrete

You Tube

rutgerscivilengr

Online

Offline

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Resources.

Ashby diagrams

Young's modulus - Density

Young's Modulus - Cost

Strength - Density

Strength - Toughness

Strength - Elongation

Strength - Cost

Strength - Max service temperature

Specific stiffness - Specific strength

Electrical resistivity - Cost

Recycle Fraction - Cost

Energy content - Cost

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Videos

Composite Materials

Cook, Jerome T. [US]: Society of Manufacturing Engineers, c2005. DVD (17 min.).

Part A: Hand lay-up, theory, open mould chopped roving, marine, vacuum bagging

Part B: Resin infusion, resin transfer, compression moulding, pultrusion, filament winding, continuous profile, bulk casting, centrifugal casting

Features an explanation of the mechanical properties of thermosetfiber-reinforced composites. The primary types of reinforcement materials are examined as well as the major matrix materials. The use of thermoplastic composite materials is also highlighted.

Mt Druitt College Library:

DVD 620.192/COMP

Recommended Viewing: All sections.

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Resources.

Wikipedia: Fibre-reinforced plastic

Wikipedia: Composite material

Ashby diagrams

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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Glossary

Anisotropic

Chopped fibre

Rovings

Unidirectional

Woven mat

Chopped strand mat

Filament wound

Matrix

Poltrusion

Aramid

Carbon fibre

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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QUESTIONS

Higgins Ch24, Newell, Timmings, Sheedy, Callister, Ashby

  • Define all glossary terms
  • Explain the issues of making strong concrete regarding water ratio, cement ratio, aggregate and sand, curing time and temperature, curing humidity. Explain what would be done to achieve high strength and low shrinkage.
  • What is a cermet and what are they used for? Give some examples of cermets and explain what properties they have that make them suitable for their purpose.
  • Give five reasons for a particle to be added to a matrix – include a range of different types of particle composites.
  • Explain how small particles can strengthen a ductile metal matrix even when the particles are rounded. (Dispersion hardened material).
  • Obsidian is a naturally occurring (usually dark) volcanic rock. Granite has large visible crystals and forms deep underground. Which one is more likely to be a glassy structure? Explain.
  • Explain why fibres are available in woven mat, chopped strand mat and filament. Give examples of each.
  • Polyester is common with glass and epoxy with carbon. Give reasons. Give advantages and disadvantages of each matrix resin.

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes

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QUESTIONS: Fibre Composites

Higgins Ch24, Newell, Timmings, Sheedy, Callister, Ashby

  • Compare and contrast the advantages and limitations of the following systems of reinforcing concrete: (a) simple reinforcement, (b) prestressed reinforcement, (c) post-tensioned reinforcement.
  • Explain what is meant by the particle hardening of a composite material and the dispersion hardening of a composite material. In each case give an example of such a material, together with a typical application.
  • Compare the four main types of water storage tank for domestic purposes: Polyethylene, fibreglass, galvanised steel and concrete. See http://www.bushmantanks.com.au/web/page/there-is-a-difference-between-tank-materials-/news/4531

EMMAT101A Engineering Materials and Processes