An example for emulation or use in a given situation LEADERSHIP MODEL
CONTINGENCY LEADERSHIP VARIABLES Followers: Situation: Capability Task Motivation Structure Environment Leader: Personal traits Behavior Experience
FIEDLER’S LPC Are you more task-oriented or relationship-oriented? He recommends that leaders change the situation rather than their own leadership style.
FIEDLER’S SITUATION FAVORABLENESS • Leader-member relations. Leaders with good relations have more influence. • Task structure. Leaders in a structured situation have more influence. • Position power. Leaders with position power have more influence.
Continuum of Leadership Behavior Leader Centered Group Centered Use of authority by leader Area of freedom of the group Leader decides, announces decision “Sells” decision to group Announces decision, permits questions Presents tentative decision, consults group, and decides Presents problem, asks for ideas, decides Presents problem and boundaries, group decides Gives group as much freedom as possible to define problem and decide
TANNENBAUM & SCHMIDT CONTINUUM • Boss. Based on personality and behavior, some leaders tend to be more autocratic and others more participative. • Subordinates. Followers’ preferred style also based on personality and behavior. • Situation. Organization size, structure, climate, goals and technology influence choice. Time available.
HOUSE’S PATH GOAL LEADERSHIP THEORY This model is used to select the leadership style appropriate to the situation to maximize both performance and job satisfaction. Based on goal setting and expectancy theory. • Clairify the follower’s path to the rewards that are avialbel • Increase rewards the follower values and desires
The Path Goal Theory • Environmental contingency factors • Task structure • Formal authority system • Work group • Leader Behavior • Directive • Supportive • Participative • Achievement oriented • Outcomes • Performance • Satisfaction • Subordinate contingency factors • Locus of control • Experience • Perceived ability
Normative Leadership Styles DECIDE Leader makes decision alone and announces it, or sells it to the followers. The leader may get information from others outside the group and within the group without specifying the problem. Organizational Behavior: An Experiential Approach 7/E
Normative Leadership Styles CONSULT INDIVIDUALLY. Leader tells followers individually the problem, gets information and suggestions, and then makes the decision. CONSULT GROUP. Leader holds a group meeting and tells followers the problem, gets information and suggestions, and then makes the decision.
Normative Leadership Styles FACILITATE. Leaders holds a group meeting and acts as a facilitator to define the problem and the limits within which a decision must be made, but doesn’t push own ideas. DELEGATE. Leader lets the group diagnose the problem and make the decision within stated limits.
SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP Characteristics of the subordinate, task, or organizaiton that replace the need for a leader or neturalize the leader’s behavior