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LEADERSHIP THEORIES. TRAIT THEORY GHISELLI BASES OF INFLUENCE (POWER) FRENCH & RAVEN BEHAVIORAL THEORIES OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY BLAKE & MOUTON CONTINGENCY THEORIES FIEDLER HOUSE & MITCHELL VROOM & YETTON ROLE THEORIES MINTZBERG. TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP GHISELLI.

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leadership theories
LEADERSHIP THEORIES

TRAIT THEORY

GHISELLI

BASES OF INFLUENCE (POWER)

FRENCH & RAVEN

BEHAVIORAL THEORIES

OHIO STATE UNIVERSITY

BLAKE & MOUTON

CONTINGENCY THEORIES

FIEDLER

HOUSE & MITCHELL

VROOM & YETTON

ROLE THEORIES

MINTZBERG

trait approaches to leadership ghiselli
TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIPGHISELLI

LEADERS ARE “BORN,” NOT MADE

  • PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

APPEARANCE, HEIGHT, AGE

  • PERSONALITY

EXTROVERSION, PERSISTENCE, SELF-ASSURANCE, DECISIVENESS

  • INTELLIGENCE

KNOWLEDGE, ABILITY, JUDGMENT

  • SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS

TACT, DIPLOMACY, SOCIABILITY, FLUENCY

THE BIG FIVE PERSONALITY TRAITS

*** EXTROVERSION (AMBITION, ENERGY)

** CONSCIENTIOUSNESS

** OPENNESS TO EXPERIENCE

* EMOTIONAL STABILITY (SELF-CONFIDENCE)

AGREEABLENESS

charismatic leadership
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP
  • VISION & ARTICULATION

PROPOSES A BETTER FUTURE – AN OPTIMISTIC GOAL

DELIVERED CLEARLY IN A CONVINCING FASHION

  • PERSONAL RISK

WILLING TO TAKE RISKS & INCUR COSTS TO ACHIEVE THE VISION

SELF-SACRIFICE WILL BE NECESSARY

  • ENVIRONMENTAL SENSITIVITY

KNOWS WHETHER THE ENVIRONMENT WILL BE SUPPORTIVE

KNOWS WHAT RESOURCES ARE NEEDED TO BRING ABOUT CHANGE

  • SENSITIVITY TO FOLLOWERS

PERCEPTIVE OF OTHERS’ ABILITIES, NEEDS & FEELINGS

TAPS INTO FOLLOWER EMOTIONS

  • UNCONVENTIONAL BEHAVIOR

MAY DO THINGS THAT ARE NOVEL, OR CONTRARY TO THE NORMS

IS THE VISION VALUE-BASED? WILL THE FOLLOWERS BECOME ENTHUSIASTIC?

DO THE PEOPLE BELIEVE THE VISION IS ATTAINABLE?

ARE CHARISMATIC LEADERS “BORN” OR CAN THEY BE TAUGHT?

CORRELATED WITH HIGH SATISFACTION AMONG FOLLOWERS

EFFECTIVE WHEN THERE IS AN IDEOLOGICAL PART TO THE TASK, OR FACING STRESS & UNCERTAINTY

CHARISMATIC LEADERS – DON’T TOLERATE CRITICISM, SURROUND THEMSELVES WITH “YES” PEOPLE

29 FIRMS STUDY --- FOUND AN ABSENCE OF EGO-DRIVEN CHARISMATIC LEADERS

transformational leadership
TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP
  • INSPIRATIONAL, IDEA-ORIENTED, VISIONARY
  • DRAMATIC, AROUSES INTENSE FEELINGS
  • COMMUNICATES HIGH EXPECTATIONS & A NEED FOR CHANGE
  • UNPREDICTABLE
    • RELIES ON REFERENT OR CHARISMATIC POWER
    • RAISES LEVEL OF AWARENESS AND COMMITMENT
    • GETS FOLLOWERS TO TRANSCEND THEIR SELF-INTERESTS
    • REQUIRES TRUST AND BELIEF IN THE VISION PRESENTED

TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP

  • EXCHANGES REWARDS FOR SERVICES
  • MANAGEMENT BY EXCEPTION (Watches for deviations)
  • KEEPS THE SYSTEM OPERATING SMOOTHLY
    • USES REWARD AND COERCIVE POWER BASES
    • RECOGNIZES WHAT WORKERS WANT & TRIES TO DELIVER IT
    • REWARDS ACCORDING TO WORKER EFFORT
    • RESPONSIVE TO WORKER SELF-INTERESTS

IS TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP BUILT “ON TOP OF” TRANSACTIONAL LEADERSHIP, OR IS IT JUST A SPECIAL CASE OF CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP?

summary of trait approaches to leadership
SUMMARY OF TRAIT APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP

ASSUMPTION

LEADERS ARE BORN, NOT MADE!

IMPLICATION

WE MUST BE VERY CAREFUL IN HOW WE SELECT OUR LEADERS

LIMITATIONS

IT OVERLOOKS THE NEEDS OF FOLLOWERS

IT IGNORES SITUATIONAL FACTORS

CAUSE AND EFFECT ARE NOT CLEARLY DEFINED

DO SELF-CONFIDENT LEADERS CAUSE FIRMS TO BE SUCCESSFUL, OR DOES A SUCCESSFUL FIRM ALLOW A LEADER TO FEEL SELF-CONFIDENT?

bases of leader power influence french raven 59
BASES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEFRENCH & RAVEN (59)

LEGITIMATE POWER

Authority to command, based on the position

REWARD POWER

Able to award positive, desired outcomes

COERCIVE POWER

Able to threaten, punish or harm

EXPERT POWER

Influence based on knowledge and information

REFERENT POWER

Influence based on charisma, identification and trust

most likely outcomes of leader power influence yukl 89
MOST LIKELY OUTCOMES OF LEADER POWER & INFLUENCEYUKL (89)
  • RESISTANCE

COERCIVE

  • COMPLIANCE

LEGITIMATE

REWARD

  • COMMITMENT

EXPERT

REFERENT

guidelines for using power yukl 89
GUIDELINES FOR USING POWERYUKL (89)

EXPERT POWER

  • ACT CONFIDENT AND DECISIVE
  • KEEP INFORMED
  • DON’T THREATEN SUBORDINATES’ SELF-ESTEEM – BE APPROACHABLE
  • WILLING TO SHARE YOUR KNOWLEDGE WITH OTHERS

REFERENT POWER

  • TREAT SUBORDINATES FAIRLY
  • DEFEND SUBORDINATES’ INTERESTS
  • BE SENSITIVE TO SUBORDINATES’ NEEDS & FEELINGS

LEGITIMATE POWER

  • BE CORDIAL, POLITE, AND CONFIDENT
  • MAKE APPROPRIATE REQUESTS
  • FOLLOW PROPER CHANNELS
  • EXERCISE POWER REGULARLY AND ENFORCE COMPLIANCE

REWARD POWER

  • VERIFY COMPLIANCE AND ACCOMPLISHMENTS
  • OFFER REWARDS FOR DESIRED ACTIONS AND BEHAVIORS
  • OFFER CREDIBLE REWARDS THAT ARE DESIRED BY SUBORDINATES

COERCIVE POWER

  • INFORM SUBORDINATES OF RULES AND PENALTIES
  • UNDERSTAND THE SITUATION BEFORE ACTING & WARN BEFORE PUNISHING
  • ADMINISTER PUNISHMENT CONSISTENTLY & PUNISH IN PRIVATE
behavioral leadership theories
BEHAVIORAL LEADERSHIP THEORIES

OHIO STATE STUDIES

INITIATING STRUCTURE v. CONSIDERATION

FIELD STUDY: IS = Satisf down, C = Satisf up

MICHIGAN STUDIES

JOB-CENTERED v. EMPLOYEE-CENTERED

FIELD EXPERIMENT: JC = Satisf down, EC = Satisf up

JC = Productivity up 25%, EC = Productivity up 20%

THE MANAGERIAL GRID BLAKE & MOUTON (64)

CONCERN FOR PEOPLE

CONCERN FOR PRODUCTION

FIVE STYLES

Impoverished, Authority/Obedience (Task), Middle of the Road, Country Club, Team

IS THERE A THIRD DIMENSION---DEVELOPMENT ORIENTED BEHAVIOR?

summary of behavioral approaches to leadership
SUMMARY OF BEHAVIORAL APPROACHES TO LEADERSHIP

ASSUMPTION

Leaders are effective because of the actions they take

IMPLICATION

We can learn to become leaders by studying what effective leaders do

LIMITATIONS

Situational factors that influence success or failure are ignored

Leaders need to be flexible…you can’t lead the same way all the time

leadership perspectives jago 82
LEADERSHIP PERSPECTIVESJAGO (82)

APPROACH

UNIVERSAL CONTINGENT

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

TRAITS TRAIT FIEDLER’S

THEORIES CONTINGENCY

THEORY

FOCUS ON - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

OHIO STATE PATH-GOAL

MICH STUDIES VROOM-YETTON

BEHAVIORS LEADER GRID LIFE-CYCLE

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

contingency theory of leadership fiedler 65
CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIPFIEDLER (65)

LEADER CHARACTERISTICS (Least-Preferred Coworker Scale)

HIGH LPC --- EMPLOYEE RELATIONS ORIENTED

LOW LPC --- TASK ORIENTED

SITUATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS

LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS

TASK STRUCTURE

LEADER POSITION POWER

FAVORABLE LEADER SITUATIONS

MOST FAVORABLE - - - - - - - - - - - - - LEAST FAVORABLE

LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS G G G G N N N N

TASK STRUCTURE G G N N G G N N

LEADER POSITION POWER G N G N G N G N

EFFECTIVE STYLE TASK EMPLOYEE TASK

FIEDLER’S CONTRIBUTIONS

  • LEADER EFFECTIVENESS IS SITUATIONAL
  • TASK LEADERSHIP IS VALUABLE AND IMPORTANT
  • MODIFY SITUATIONS TO FIT THE LEADER’S STYLE
manipulating the situation
MANIPULATING THE SITUATION

MODIFY LEADER-MEMBER RELATIONS

SPEND MORE (OR LESS) TIME WITH SUBORDINATES

ORGANIZE SOME OFF-WORK GROUP ACTIVITIES

INCREASE (OR DECREASE) YOUR AVAILABILITY TO WORKERS

RAISE MORALE BY OBTAINING POSITIVE OUTCOMES FOR SUBORDINATES

TRANSFER SUBORDINATES INTO (OR OUT OF) YOUR UNIT

REQUEST COMPATIBLE PEOPLE FOR WORK IN YOUR GROUP

MODIFY TASK STRUCTURE

ASK FOR TASKS WHICH ARE MORE STUCTURED

LEARN ALL YOU CAN ABOUT THE TASK

BREAK THE JOB DOWN INTO SMALLER SUB-TASKS

LEAVE THE TASK IN RELATIVELY VAGUE FORM

ENRICH JOBS THROUGH HORIZONTAL AND VERTICAL EXPANSION

MODIFY POSITION POWER

SHOW SUBORDINATES WHO’ BOSS --- EXERCISE YOUR POWERS FULLY

BECOME AN EXPERT ABOUT JOBS AS SOON AS POSSIBLE

ALL INFORMATION AND FEEDBACK TO SUBORDINATES IS CHANNELED THROUGH YOU

ASK MEMBERS TO PARTICIPATE IN DECISIONS AND PLANNING

TRY TO BE “ONE OF THE GANG” --- DOWNPLAY YOUR POWER

LET ASSISTANTS EXERCISE MORE POWER

ASK MANAGEMENT TO GIVE YOU MORE DISCRETION AND AUTONOMY

life cycle maturity theory situational leadership theory hersey blanchard 77
LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY(SITUATIONAL LEADERSHIP THEORY) HERSEY & BLANCHARD (77)

LEADER BEHAVIORS NEED TO VARY, DEPENDING ON THE MATURITY OF THE WORKERS

DIRECTIVE STYLE (TELLING)

GIVES CLEAR DIRECTION & INSTRUCTIONS TO IMMATURE EMPLOYEES

FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE AND UNWILLING (INSECURE)

COACHING STYLE (SELLING)

EXPANDS TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION, HELPS MATURING EMPLOYEES BUILD CONFIDENCE AND MOTIVATION

FOLLOWERS ARE UNABLE, BUT WILLING TO TRY

SUPPORTING STYLE (PARTICIPATING)

EMPLOYEE FEEL COMPETENT, ACTIVE TWO-WAY COMMUNICATION STILL NEEDED FOR SHARED DECISIONS

FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE BUT APPREHENSIVE

AUTONOMOUS STYLE (DELEGATING)

GIVES RESPONSIBILITIES FOR PLANNING AND DECISION MAKING TO HIGHLY MATURE EMPLOYEES

FOLLOWERS ARE ABLE AND WILLING

TASK BEHAVIORS START OUT HIGH, AND GRADUALLY DECLINE

RELATIONSHIP BEHAVIORS START LOW, BUILD, THEN DECLINE AGAIN

AN INTUITIVE THEORY, BUT EMPIRICAL SUPPORT HAS NOT BEEN STRONG

path goal theory of leadership house mitchell 74
PATH-GOAL THEORY OF LEADERSHIPHOUSE & MITCHELL (74)

SITUATIONAL FACTORS

CHARACTERISTICS OF SUBORDINATES

LOCUS OF CONTROL

EXPERIENCE

PERCEIVED ABILITY

CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ENVIRONMENT

TASK STRUCTURE

FORMAL AUTHORITY SYSTEM

WORK GROUP

LEADER STYLES

DIRECTIVE

SUPPORTIVE

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED

PARTICIPATIVE

THE LEADER COMPENSATES FOR THINGS LACKING IN EITHER THE EMPLOYEE OR THE WORK SETTING TO HELP THE WORKER PERFORM EFFECTIVELY

path goal leadership styles
PATH-GOAL LEADERSHIP STYLES

DIRECTIVE

LETS SUBORDINATES KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED

PLANS AND SCHEDULES WORK TO BE DONE

GIVES SPECIFIC GUIDANCE -- WHAT SHOULD BE DONE AND HOW IT SHOULD BE DONE

MAINTAINS CLEAR STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE

SUPPORTIVE

SHOWS CONCERN FOR WELL-BEING OF SUBORDINATES

TREATS MEMBERS AS EQUALS

DOES LITTLE THINGS TO MAKE THE WORK MORE PLEASANT

IS FRIENDLY AND APPROACHABLE

ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED

SETS CHALLENGING GOALS

EXPECTS SUBORDINATES TO PERFORM AT THE HIGHEST LEVEL

SEEKS IMPROVEMENT IN PERFORMANCE, WHILE SHOWING CONFIDENCE IN WORKERS

PARTICIPATIVE

CONSULTS WITH SUBORDINATES

SOLICITS SUGGESTIONS

TAKES SUGGESTIONS SERIOUSLY INTO CONSIDERATION BEFORE MAKING DECISIONS

vertical dyad exchange model leader member exchange model graen 75
VERTICAL DYAD (EXCHANGE) MODEL(LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE MODEL) GRAEN (75)
  • LEADERS INVEST THEIR TIME & ATTENTION IN THOSE EXPECTED TO PERFORM BEST
  • LEADER CREATES AN “IN-GROUP” (THE “FAVORED FEW”) & AN “OUT-GROUP”
  • IN-GROUPS AND OUT-GROUPS MAY DEMONSTRATE THE “SELF-FULFILLING PROPHESY”

IN-GROUPS

  • RECEIVE SPECIAL DUTIES AND HAVE SPECIAL PRIVILEGES
  • ARE GIVEN MORE AUTONOMY AND RESPONSIBILITY
  • EXPERIENCE HIGHER SATISFACTION
  • ARE MORE PRODUCTIVE
  • ARE PART OF THE LEADER’S SUPPORT NETWORK

OUT_GROUPS

  • ARE NOT TRUSTED
  • ARE NOT GIVEN DESIRABLE WORK ASSIGNMENTS
  • RECEIVE LESS LEADER TIME AND ATTENTION
  • “LIVE DOWN” TO LEADER EXPECTATIONS
  • ARE LESS LIKELY TO SUPPORT THE LEADER

IN-GROUP MEMBERS SELECTED BASED ON:

  • COMPETENCE AND ABILITY
  • PERSONAL COMPATIBILITY WITH THE LEADER
substitutes for leadership kerr jerimer 78
SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIPKERR & JERIMER (78)

SUBSTITUTES ARE FACTORS THAT CAN NEUTRALIZE THE INFLUENCE OF LEADER BEHAVIOR

LOOK FOR CHARACTERISTICS OF:

THE SUBORDINATES

THE TASK

THE ORGANIZATION

FOR INITIATING STRUCTURE

ABILITY AND PROFESSIONAL TRAINING OF SUBORDINATES

STANDARDIZED, UNAMBIGUOUS, ROUTINIZED TASKS

DETAILED RULES & PROCEDURES PROVIDED BY THE ORGANIZATION

FOR CONSIDERATION

INTRINSIC APPEAL OF THE TASK ITSELF

ESTEEM OF PROFESSIONAL COLLEAGUES

SUPPORTIVE AND COHESIVE WORK GROUP

summary of contingency theories
SUMMARY OF CONTINGENCY THEORIES

THE CONTINGENCY THEORY

Fiedler (65)

PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP THEORY

Vroom & Yetton (73)

PATH-GOAL THEORY

House & Mitchell (74)

VERTICAL DYAD (LEADER-MEMBER EXCHANGE) THEORY

Graen (75)

LIFE-CYCLE (MATURITY) THEORY

Hersey & Blanchard (77)

SUBSTITUTES FOR LEADERSHIP

Kerr & Jerimer (78)

CONCLUSIONS RE: CONTINGENCY THEORIES

THERE IS NO “ONE BEST WAY” TO LEAD

LEADERS SHOULD KNOW THEIR OWN PREFERRED STYLE

KNOW HOW TO CAREFULLY DIAGNOSE YOUR WORK SITUATION

UNDERSTAND WHICH ACTIONS TO TAKE TO IMPROVE THE SITUATION

managerial roles mintzberg 73
MANAGERIAL ROLESMINTZBERG (73)

INTERPERSONAL ROLES

  • Figurehead (Ceremonial)
  • Leader (Supervisor)
  • Liaison (Linking-Pin)

INFORMATIONAL ROLES

  • Monitor
  • Disseminator
  • Spokesperson

DECISIONAL ROLES

  • Innovator (Entrepreneur)
  • Disturbance Handler (Crisis)
  • Resource Allocator
  • Negotiator
leadership and trust
LEADERSHIP AND TRUST

AN EXPECTATION THAT THE LEADER WILL NOT TAKE UNFAIR ADVANTAGE OF ME

IS MY LEADER TRUSTWORTHY?

FIVE DIMENSIONS OF TRUST

INTEGRITY -- honest and truthful

COMPETENCE -- has good technical knowledge & interpersonal skills

CONSISTENCY -- is reliable, predictable, and has good judgement

LOYALTY -- will look out for me and protect me; won’t take advantage

OPENNESS -- will talk to me and tell me the truth (what’s going on)

DETERRENCE-BASED TRUST

--WE CAN RETALIATE OR STRIKE BACK IF HARMED…DON’T REALLY HAVE A HISTORY

KNOWLEDGE-BASED TRUST

--CAN PREDICT WHAT WILL HAPPEN BASED ON EXPERIENCE…GIVE A SECOND CHANCE?

IDENTIFICATION-BASED TRUST

--- KNOW EACH OTHER INTIMATELY, ACT FOR EACH OTHER

BASIC PRINCIPLES OF TRUST

MISTRUST DRIVES OUT TRUST

TRUST BEGETS TRUST

GROWTH OFTEN MASKS DISTRUST

DECLINE OR DOWNSIZING TESTS THE HIGHEST LEVELS OF TRUST

TRUST INCREASES COHESION

MISTRUSTING GROUPS SELF-DESTRUCT

MISTRUST GENERALLY REDUCES PRODUCTIVITY

contemporary issues in leadership
CONTEMPORARY ISSUES IN LEADERSHIP
  • DO MEN & WOMEN LEAD DIFFERENTLY?

The similarities outweigh the differences

A SLIGHT TENDENCY FOR WOMEN

Lean toward participative, negotiable, information-sharing styles

This tendency declines when women are in male-dominated jobs

A SLIGHT TENDENCY FOR MEN

To be more directive and rely on the formal authority of their position

  • TEAM LEADERSHIP

Difficult for managers to switch from traditional roles

LEARN TO BECOME:

A Facilitator

A Liaison

A Troubleshooter

A Conflict Manager

A Coach

  • EMPOWERMENT

Be careful about jumping on the bandwagon -- does it “fit?”

IT ASSUMES A UNIVERSAL APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP

DOES THE SITUATION CALL FOR MORE EMPOWERMENT?

slide24
4. IMPORTANCE OF FOLLOWERS

The qualities of effective followers:

THEY MANAGE THEMSELVES WELL – CAN THINK, WORK INDEPENDENTLY

THEY ARE COMMITTED TO THEIR WORK

THEY ARE COMPETENT AND WORK TO HIGHER STANDARDS THAN THEIR JOB REQUIRES

THEY ARE HONEST AND CREDIBLE

5. IMPACT OF NATIONAL CULTURE

Culture is an important situational variable

HIGHER POWER-DISTANCE – autocratic leadership style is preferred

Arab, Far East, Latin countires

LOWER POWER-DISTANCE – more success with the participative style

USA Canada, Scandinavian countries

6. BIOLOGICAL IMPACTS ON LEADERSHIP

Seratonin improves sociability and reduces aggression (PROZAC)

Testosterone increases competitive drive and assertiveness

Women in professional jobs have higher levels

7. MORAL DIMENSIONS OF LEADERSHIP

What sort of example does the leader set?

IS THE LEADER A GOOD ROLE MODEL?

CORRUPTION WITHIN THE FIRM OFTEN STARTS WITH BAD EXAMPLES AT THE TOP