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CHAPTER 9 “ Joints”. COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES: Joints: Structural and functional classification Structure of a typical synovial joint Types of synovial joints Terms for descriptions of movements. JOINTS. Defined: any place where two bones come together General Function of Joints:

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chapter 9 joints

CHAPTER 9“Joints”

COMMON COURSE OBJECTIVES:

Joints: Structural and functional classification

Structure of a typical synovial joint

Types of synovial joints

Terms for descriptions of movements

joints
JOINTS
  • Defined:any place where two bones come together
  • General Function of Joints:

- Hold the skeleton together

- Allow for increased mobility and flexibility of skeleton

classification of joints
CLASSIFICATION OF JOINTS
  • Joints can be classified based on:

-function(what kind of movement they allow)

-structure(what material is found in the joint and if is there a joint cavity present).

  • You are required to know each of these categories.
functional classification
Functional classification
  • Synarthroses – joints that have NO movement.
    • Examples: sutures of the skull, gomphoses- teeth
  • Amphiarthroses– partially movable joints.
    • Examples: intervertebral disc and pubic symphysis
  • Diarthroses– freely movable joints.

The most common type of functional joint in the body.

    • Examples: knee joint, shoulder joint, finger joints, ankle and wrist joints, etc.
structural classification
Structural Classification
  • Fibrous joints (synarthroses):adjacent bones are joined by collagen fibers. 3 kinds:

- sutures, gomphoses and syndesmoses.

  • Cartilaginous joints (amphiarthroses):two bones are joined by cartilage. 2 kinds:

- synchondroses, and symphyses.

  • Synovial joints (Diarthroses):freely movable and most common joint in the body.
joint mobility comparison
Joint mobility comparison

Note that as mobility decreases, stability increases.

synovial joints diarthroses
Synovial Joints (diarthroses)
  • this type of joint is defined by the presence of a joint cavity filled with fluid.
  • Most joints of the body fall into this class.

Examples: knee joint, elbow joint, shoulder and hip joints and the phalanges of hands and feet, etc.

structures in a synovial joint
Structures in a Synovial Joint
  • articular capsule – external and internal
  • joint/synovial cavity – filled with synovial fluid
  • articular cartilage – Hyaline cartilage
  • synovial fluid – viscous/ clear colorless fluid
  • ligaments – give the joint reinforcement and strength
  • Nerves – provide feelings of pain and stretch

7. Vessels - providenutrients to joint

additional joint structures
Additional joint structures
  • Ligaments- join bones to bones
    • Consists of dense regular connective tissue.
  • Tendons- join muscles to bone
    • Consists of dense regular connective tissue.
  • Bursae- fibrous sac lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid
    • Occurs between bones and tendons or muscles
    • Acts to decrease friction during movement
accessory joint structures
Accessory joint structures
  • fatty pads - cushioning
  • menisci – tough fibrocartilage
  • bursae -flattened fibrous sac lined by synovial membrane.
  • tendon sheaths -fibrous tissue connecting a muscle to a bone
knee joint structures
Knee joint structures
  • Articular capsule
  • Synovial membrane
  • Medial and lateral menisci
  • Suprapatellar, infrapatellar and prepatellar bursae
  • Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments
  • Tibial and fibular collateral ligaments
  • Patellar capsule
  • Articular cartilage
  • Tendon of quadriceps femoris
types of synovial joints
Types of Synovial Joints
  • Plane (gliding) Joints
  • Hinge Joints
  • Pivot Joints
  • Condyloid Joints
  • Saddle Joints
  • Ball and Socket Joints
movements allowed by synovial joints
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints

1. gliding – - bony surfaces of bone slide or glide over each other

2. flexion –- bending movement that decreases the angle

3. extension – movement the increases the angle, opposite of lexion

4. abduction –moving away from longitudinal axis

5. adduction –movement toward the longitudinal axis

6. circumduction –movement of the limb such that it describes a cone

7. rotation – turning the bone or limb around its long axis

8.supination –rotating the forearm laterally such that the palm faces superiorly

movements allowed by synovial joints22
Movements allowed by Synovial Joints

9. pronation –- rotating the forearm medially such that the palm faces inferiorly

10. inversion –- sole of the foot faces or turns medially

11. eversion –- sole of the foot turn laterally

12. protraction –-juttting out of the jaw

13. retraction –- moving the jaw backward

14. elevation –- lifting the limb or body superiorly

15. depression –- moving the body part inferiorly

16. opposition –- to bring the thumb and index finger tips together

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Protraction/Retraction Pronation/Supination

Opposition of thumb and pinky

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Elevation/ Depression

Inversion/Eversion