Influenza Vaccines: The Good, The Bad, and The Eggs Stacey Schultz-Cherry Assistant Professor Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology Makes You feel Like … Primarily children Influenza Virus Viral shedding - 1 dpi Flu-like symptoms 1- 8 dpi Transient lymphocytopenia
Department of Medical Microbiology & Immunology
1918 Spanish flu H1N1
1933 Influenza virus discovered
1957 Asian flu H2N2
1968 Hong Kong flu H3N2
1977 Russian (swine) flu H1N1
1997 Avian flu??? H5N1
Influenza viruses are unique among respiratory tract viruses undergo significant antigenic variation.
Antigenic drift vs. antigenic shift
Hong Kong, 1997
Actual # of people infected - unknown
Cumulative Number of Confirmed Human Cases of Avian Influenza A/(H5N1) Reported to WHO
Total number of cases includes number of deaths. WHO reports only laboratory-confirmed cases. All dates refer to onset of illness.
Shortness of breath
Impaired liver function with elevated liver enzymes
Prolonged clotting times and renal impairment.
The lymphocyte count appears to be the most valuable parameter for identification of patients who are at risk of progression to severe illness
Types of Vaccine
What’s in the Vaccine?
Decide on the Strains
— an A/Brisbane/59/2007 (H1N1)-like virus;— an A/Brisbane/10/2007 (H3N2)-like virus;*— a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus.#
* A/Brisbane/10/2007 is a current southern hemisphere vaccine virus.# B/Florida/4/2006 and B/Brisbane/3/2007 (a B/Florida/4/2006-like virus) are current southern hemisphere vaccine viruses.
Situation continues to get more complicated..
continues in several countries, but the true efficacy of a vaccine would
become apparent only when used. Supply is also an issue: clinical
trials suggest that current vaccine production would be unable to
provide enough doses for the global population in the event of a
Also, H5N1 vaccine strains show a lower production yield than usual
seasonal vaccine strains, explained Dr Marie-Paule Kieny, director of
WHO's Initiative for Vaccine Research: "Moreover, H5N1 split or
subunit-inactivated vaccines seem to be less immunogenic than their
seasonal counterparts. Therefore, research efforts should be invested
into understanding the basis for these differences, and into
development of strains which do not have these two disadvantages".
Vaccine or no, the problem and solution are at the animal level.
"If we can get a good handle on control in animals then the human
threat disappears but there is still a long way to go towards
achieving this, with many unanswered questions," said Peiris.
In an attempt to thwart the
spread of bird flu, President
George W. Bush has bombed
the Canary Islands.
Turkey is next.