A new model for researching the relationship between digital technologies and learning Richard Andrews OECD/CERI seminar Firenze, March 2007
This model assumes the impact or effect on x on y. It assumes that, although y is affected by x, x remains unchanged. x y
This model assumes there is some kind of dialogic relationship between x and y. In other words, although x may affect y, it may also be the case that y affects x – perhaps to the same degree, or perhaps to a lesser extent (or even possibly, to a greater extent). In studies in literacy development, the relationship has been described as ‘symbiotic’ by Haas (1996) x y
Both ICT and literacy change in time. What counts for ICT in 1990 is different by the year 2000, and again different in 2007. Similarly, what counts as being literate also changes. (Individuals also develop in time. Their development is not depicted in this series, but I’ll come back to it.) ICT 2 Literacy 2 ICT 1 Literacy 1
ICT 2 Literacy 2 ICT 1 Literacy 1
ICT 3 Literacy 3 ICT 2 Literacy 2 ICT 1 Literacy 1
ICT 3 Literacy 3 ICT 2 Literacy 2 ICT 1 Literacy 1
What kind of model is this? • Firstly, it’s dialogic, as it recognises that phenomena exist and develop in relation to each other • Conceptually, it could be described as a reciprocal co-evolutionary model, or simply co-evolutionary • Although designed as a research model, it helps to inform practice by describing and explaining how technology links to learning • It could inform curricular design, lesson planning and individual learners’ programme design
ICT 3 Literacy 3 What factors affect literacy development, irrespective of ICT? How do individuals relate to communities of learning (family, school, street, clubs, societies etc)? What factors affect the development of ICT? What kinds of e-communities are created and how are they sustained? ICT 1 Literacy 1 What are the determinants of longitudinal growth?
ICT 3 Learning 3 What factors affect learning development, irrespective of ICT? How do individuals relate to communities of learning (family, school, street, clubs, societies etc)? What factors affect the development of ICT? What kinds of e-communities are created and how are they sustained? ICT 1 Learning 1 What are the determinants of longitudinal growth in learning?
Researching e-learning • Many Masters and doctoral students at York interested in second language learning and e-learning – but problems in framing the research topic and the methodology • Sage Handbook of E-learning Research designed to provide a foundation (Andrews and Haythornthwaite, 2007) • Looking forward to new doctoral formats for the presentation of the research
The nature of e-learning • ‘E-learning needs to be more than the “use of technologies,” and it ismore than a “communications and delivery tool … to support students and improve the management of learning”. At its best, e-learning is a reconceptualization of learning that makes use of not only instructor-led pedagogy but all the flexibility that asynchronous, multi-party contribution can bring. At its worst, e-learning is a substitution of one delivery mechanism for another; but even such implementations will be overwhelmed by the demands and expectations of users (both instructors and learners) and will change through social contracts, disuse, and idiosyncratic use. Elearning is continuously emergent, emanating from the possibilities of ICT in the hands of administrators, instructors and learners, and created and recreated by use. The forms and shapes of technology, learning, and technology-in-use for learning co-evolve, one pushing, pulling and modifying the other.’ (from Andrews & Haythornthwaite, 2007)
Hybrid media... • “Peter Lunenfeld has said that ‘hybrid media require hybrid analysis’, and I think I have been struggling towards that conclusion through much of the work since the Rosendale Project in 1996. Like you, I find the causal approaching baffling because there are so many factors at play, besides the presence of ICT. Has anyone ever tried to study the relationship between the biro and academic achievement?” (Rebecca Sinker)
New forms of research • Research for website and interface design • Research about the relationship between literacy learning, or learning, and new technologies • Dissertations/theses will take 50/50 shape; include much more imagery; and embrace the moving image – as well as addressing multimodal literacies and elearning in the mobile age • They will also be increasingly bi- or multi-lingual, reflecting global economics and politics…
References • Andrews. R. (2004) (ed)The Impact of ICT on Literacy Education London: RoutledgeFalmer • Andrews, R. Freeman, A., Hou, D., McGuinn, N., Robinson, A., Zhu, D. (submitted 2004, in press) The Effectiveness of ICT on the Learning of Written English for 5-16 year olds, submitted to British Journal of Educational Technology • Andrews, R., McGuinn, N. and Robinson, A. (unpublished) The effectiveness of ICT in the teaching and learning of English for 5-16 year olds: results and implications of six systematic reviews, submitted to The Teacher Training Agency (now the Training and Development Agency for Schools) • Andrews, R. (2005) Towards a dialogic model for research in education, paper given at the Economic and Social Research Council seminar series on Dialogue and Development, King’s College London (June 2005) • Andrews, R. and Haythornthwaite, C. (2007) (eds) The Sage Handbook of e-Learning Research London: Sage • Haas, C. (1996) Studies in the Materiality of Literacy Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum • Graves, D. (1982) Learning to Write Portsmouth NH: Heinemann • Low, G. & Beverton, S. (2004). A systematic review of the impact of ICT on literacy learning in English of learners between 5 and 16, for whom English is a second or additional language. In: Research Evidence in Education Library. EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, London. (http://eppi.ioe.ac.uk/reel). • OECD (2000) Literacy in the Information Age and Schooling for Tomorrow: Learning to Bridge the Digital Divide Paris: Organisation for Economic and Collaborative Development