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Sectionalism Highlights

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  1. Sectionalism Highlights Chapter 18

  2. Election of 1848 parties • Democrats • Nominee: Lewis Cass • Stance of Slavery: N/A – Popular Sovereignty • Republicans • Nominee: Zachary Taylor • Stance of Slavery: N/A – No official stance • Free Soilers • Nominee: Martin Van Buren • Stance of Slavery: Clearly Anti-Slavery expansion • (2 reasons: abolitionists & anti-black migration west)

  3. Sectional balance & California • Federal Gov’t 1850 • Executive: Zach Taylor = slave owning, southern President • Legislative: Senate equal balance = all abolition legislation stopped • Judicial: Supreme Court holds up constitutionality of slavery (ex. Dred Scott 1857) • California • 1848 = GOLD • 1849 = 49ers • Free state application • What’s the problem? • Balance • Washington D.C. • Fugitive Slave Law being ignored

  4. Harriet Tubman & the underground railroad • MiniBio – Tubman • 19 trips • 300+ slaves freed • Fugitive Slave Law = to Canada

  5. CONGRESSIONAL DIVISIONS • Henry Clay • Compromisers • Both sides make concessions • Stephen Douglas • South • States’ rights • Fugitive slave law • State balance intact • Daniel Webster • North • Opposed slavery, but urged compromise • Seventh of March speech • Mexico land too dry for cotton • Seen as a traitor • William Seward • Young Guard • Moral purification over preservation of union • Zach Taylor veto support = no compromise • Taylor dies & Fillmore willing to compromise

  6. COMPROMISE OF 1850 • Clay, Webster, & Douglas • Pushed North to compromise • Compromise of 1850 • North • CA = free state • TX gave up land disputed in NM • Washington D.C. banned slave trade (slavery legal) • South • Mex. Cessions = Popular Sovereignty • A lot of new possible slave land (too dry) • Texas give $10 million • Tougher Fugitive Slave Law • Slaves denied “due process” • Judges given $5 for freeing & $10 for returning • Officials required to return runaways • North Backtracks • “Personal Liberty Laws” • Refuse to enforce FSL

  7. Compromise of 1850 Review Video

  8. President pierce • Election of 1852 • All parties side-step slavery issue • Democrats • Franklin Pierce • Won 254 to 42 electoral • Whigs • Winfield Scott • Party split over slavery • Free Soilers • 5% of vote • Slavocracy fears • Panama: Clayton-Bulwer Treaty • Nicaragua • Cuba: Ostend Manifesto • Pierce eventually backs away

  9. New Territories • South • Gadsden Purchase • Transcontinental: southern route • Secured/organized land (Indian attacks) • Geography (Rocky Mountains) • $10 million offered to Mexico for AZ/NM territory • North • Kansas-Nebraska Act 1856 • Stephen Douglas (IL) • Organize KS-NB to have northern transcontinental route • Compromise • Repeal Missouri Compromise 1820 • KS-NB get popular sovereignty