Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification
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IR Spectroscopy: A Promising Technique for Glass Analysis in Forensic Identification . By : Brian Vlaisavich, Biology, Junior, Lewis University Pradip Patel, Biology, Junior, Lewis University. Sponsor: Dr. Salim M. Diab, University of St. Francis and Lewis University . Objective .

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Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

IR Spectroscopy: A Promising Technique for Glass Analysis in Forensic Identification

By :

Brian Vlaisavich, Biology, Junior, Lewis University

Pradip Patel, Biology, Junior, Lewis University

Sponsor: Dr. Salim M. Diab, University of St. Francis and Lewis University


Objective
Objective Forensic Identification

  • To create an automotive glass database that will allow scientist to identify unknown glass samples from a crime scenes.


Why ir spectroscopy
Why IR Spectroscopy? Forensic Identification

  • There is no current forensic database for glass analysis using IR techniques.

  • Refractive index is the only instrumental technique used for way glass analysis in forensic laboratories today..


Refractive index
Refractive Index Forensic Identification

  • Outdated instrumental method

  • Method is neither accurate nor precise.

  • Variation over time of these databases causes for improper statistical calculations.


Benefits of using ftir
Benefits of using FTIR Forensic Identification

  • Method is quick and reliable.

  • Provides:

    • reliable accuracy

    • desirable speed and efficiency of data analysis and collection.


History of ir
History of IR Forensic Identification

  • Developed in the 1960's

    • Only intended for advanced research

  • High cost made it impossible to be used for commercial use

  • Advancements in technology - FTIR

    • reduced cost

    • enhanced capabilities making it a standard instrument in modern labs.


How does ir work

1. consists of a source, beamsplitter, two mirrors, laser, and detector.

2. beamsplitter splits the beam into two parts.

3.  One part is transmitted to a moving mirror; other part is reflected to a fixed mirror.

4.  The moving mirror moves back and forth at a constant velocity.  This velocity is timed according to the very precise laser wavelength in the system which also acts as an internal wavelength calibration.

5.  The two beams are reflected from the mirrors and recombined at the beamsplitter.

How does IR work?


Continued

6.  The beam from the moving mirror has traveled a different distance than the beam from the fixed mirror.

7.  When the beams are combined an interference pattern is created, since some of the wavelengths recombine constructively and some destructively.

8. This interference pattern is called an interferogram.

9. This interferogram then goes from the beamsplitter to the sample, where some energy is absorbed and some is transmitted.

10. The transmitted portion reaches the detector.

11. The detector reads information about the wavelengths in the infrared range simultaneously.

Continued . . .


Further explanation of ir
Further explanation of IR… different distance than the beam from the fixed mirror.

  • IR spectroscopy is the use of light in the mid-infrared range to excite the bonds in a compound in order to learn about it by seeing which frequencies are absorbed.


Two main uses of ir spectroscopy in forensic science
Two main uses of IR spectroscopy in Forensic Science: different distance than the beam from the fixed mirror.

  • Confirmation of Functional Groups

  • Confirmation of the identity of a substance


Theory of ir absorption
Theory of IR Absorption different distance than the beam from the fixed mirror.

  • IR absorption is restricted to compounds with small energy differences in the likely vibrational and rotational states.

  • For a molecule to absorb in IR, the vibrations or rotations must cause a net change in dipole moment of the molecule.

  • If the frequency of radiation matches the vibrational frequency of the molecule, then radiation will be absorb in the form of a peak, also known as a ‘fingerprint’


Interpretation of ir spectrum
Interpretation of IR spectrum? different distance than the beam from the fixed mirror.

  • IR peaks shows where the infrared radiation was absorbed in the molecule.

  • Collective analysis of peak shapes and frequencies, define the functionality/identity of the compound.


Why do ir peaks have different intensities and or different frequencies
Why do IR peaks have different intensities and/or different frequencies?

  • The intensity of an IR absorption is proportional to:

    • The strength of the dipole moment change associated with the vibration

    • The number of bonds in the molecule


Types of stretching vibrations
Types of Stretching Vibrations frequencies?

  • Symmetrical stretching

    • the bonds stretch with the same strength at the same time.

  • Asymmetrical stretching

    • The bonds stretch at different times causing a change in the dipole moment.


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Configuration frequencies?

  • Bench Status

    • Must have a Green Check

  • Collect

    • Experiment setup

      • Collect Tab

        • # of scans 32

        • Resolution 4

        • Final Format: % transmittance

        • Collect background after (Large #)

        • 32 scans for background


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

32 frequencies?

4

H2O & CO2

Large #


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Configuration frequencies?

  • Bench Tab

    • Gain: autogain

    • Min Range 600 nm

      • Select OK


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Library Setup frequencies?

  • Analyze

    • Library Setup

      • Select Glass Library

        • Select Add

        • Select OK

600

autogain


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Background frequencies?

  • Collect background

    • Click Col Bkg

      • Select OK

      • Add to window 1: Select NO


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Prepare Glass frequencies?

  • Place glass into cardboard

    • Place into middle slit

      • Cover the top


Ir spectroscopy a promising technique for glass analysis in forensic identification

Glass Sample frequencies?

  • Collect Sample

    • Click Col Smp

      • Add title of sample with date

      • Select ok

      • Add to window 1: Select Yes

  • Add to Library


Results
Results frequencies?

  • Created a library for glass analysis:

    • Entered known samples previously collected from University of St. Francis students

    • Entered known samples collected at Canal St. Junkyard in Lockport, IL

    • Various other samples also entered


Confirmation of samples
Confirmation of Samples frequencies?

  • Each sample was entered into the database multiple times

  • Spectra that had the largest % match was then saved to the library



Experimental problems
Experimental Problems frequencies?

  • Samples similar to each other produced indistinguishable spectra

  • Samples that are

    • Curved in shape

    • Bubbled in shape

    • Cracked in shape

    • Too small in size

      All produced distorted spectra.


Discussion
Discussion frequencies?

  • Car manufactures may use similar compositions of glass in production

  • A larger range of different makes and models of cars needs to be collected

    • Most of the samples collected:

      • American cars

        • Ford

        • Chevrolet


Curved bubbled samples
Curved/Bubbled Samples frequencies?

  • Produced different spectra depending on:

    • Angle and direction of light on sample

    • Example:

      • tail lights, head lights, etc.





Identification of unknown samples
Identification of Unknown Samples frequencies?

  • Three unknown glass samples were analyzed

  • Goal:

    • To determine the source of glass based on the Automobile Library that we created


Unknown 1
Unknown 1 frequencies?


Unknown 2
Unknown 2 frequencies?


Unknown 3
Unknown 3 frequencies?


Future research
Future Research frequencies?

  • More samples can be collect to build the library

  • Spectra collected can still use continued updating to be more accurate


Unknown data
Unknown Data frequencies?

  • Unknown 2 & 3

    • appear to not match well with anything in the library.

  • Unknown 1

    • 70% match to 1995 Dodge Intrepid

    • Possible relationship?


Discussion conclusion
Discussion/Conclusion frequencies?

  • From the initial research it appears that FTIR is a reliable method for glass analysis

  • Glass samples matched with corresponding cars

    • However:

      • Large % match was not always obtained

      • Future research necessary


References
References frequencies?

  • FT-IR Dispersive Infrared. Theory of Infrared Spectroscopy Instrumentation. www.thermo.com/nicolet

  • Infrared Spectroscopy. http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtTxtJml/Spectrpy/InfraRed/inf rared.htm

  • Introduction to IR Spectra. http://www.chem.ucla.edu/~webspectra/irintro.html

  • Koons, Robert D. Distribution of Refractive Index Values in Sheet Glasses. Forensic Science Research Unit. www.fbi.gov/hq/lab/fsc/backissu/jan2001/koons.htm

  • Lesney, Mark S. A Study in Infrared. Today’s Chemist at Work. October 2003. www.tcawonline.org


Acknowledgement
Acknowledgement frequencies?

  • Lewis University

  • University of St. Francis

  • Professor S. M. Diab

  • Br. Pierre St. Raymond

  • Canal St. Junkyard (Lockport, IL)