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Glass for Fire-Resistance

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  1. GlassforFire-Resistance

  2. Contents • Float glass manufacture • Effects of heat on glass • When to specify fire-resistant glass • Standards / Regulations • Classification for fire-resistant glass • Fire Test evidence • Integrity fire-resistant glass • Insulation fire-resistant glass • Typical examples of applications • Summary

  3. Sand, soda ash, limestone, salt-cake, dolomite are meltedat 1600°C Poured into a bath of molten tin at 1100°C Controlled atmosphere Glass settles and is pulled out at 600°C and annealed Washed, cut & stored Molten tin Furnace Float bath Lehr Float Glass Production

  4. Glass Characteristics • Glass is fundamentally a very strong material • It can be severely weakened by fine cracks and abrasions • It behaves like a brittle substance • It is usually found in the following forms • Annealed (patterned) • PVB laminated • Thermally toughened • Wired

  5. Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve Fire-resistant glass is exposed to standard temperatures in a definedtime frame in a Standard Fire Test 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) The Effects of Heat on Glass Standard Temperature/Time Curve BS 476: Pt22: 1987

  6. Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve 40 - 100°CUneven heating will cause glass to crack and fall from the frame 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) The Effects of Heat on Glass Annealed Glass

  7. The Effects of Heat on Glass PVB Laminated Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve Interlayer will hold glass together until temperature rises above approximately 250°C where vinyl begins to melt and pieces of glass will fall from the frame 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes)

  8. The Effects of Heat on Glass Thermally-Toughened Glass Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve • Stable up to 300-350°C • Vulnerable to temperature differentials • Above 400°C ‘de-toughens’ • Above 600°C glass softens and will ‘slump’ from the frame • Frame design is critical - edge cover 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes)

  9. Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve Glazing which remains transparentin case of fire– E30 & E60 It is designed to crack like annealed glass with its wires holding the assembly together in the frame 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes) The Effects of Heat on Glass Wired Glass • Wired glass has met the need for fire-resistant screens for more than 100 years • More recently, the glass industry has developed sophisticated, clear view solutions • A wide range of fire-resistant glass is available today

  10. Fire-Resistant Glass Fire-resistant glass will only perform when it is part of a suitable fire protection system (i.e. in a tested fire screen) • Glass • Frame & glazing materials • Qualified glazier(FIRAS Scheme) Each element in the fire tested system is as critical as the next

  11. When to specify Fire-Resistant Glazing In the event of fire... • The building should remain structurally intact • Fire spread over the internal linings of the building is inhibited • The external walls and roofs should resist the spread of fire over their surfaces and fire spread from one building to another is restricted • There should be sufficient degree of fire separation within the building and between adjoining means of escape • There should be adequate means of escape • There should be easy access for fire fighters and rescue teams

  12. When to specify Fire-Resistant Glazing Building Regulations provide guidance on the safe access and egress of buildings • The Building Control Act 1990 • The Building Control Regulations (SI 496 of 1997) • Technical Guidance Document B: Fire Safety • Construction Products Directive (89/106/EEC) & SI 198 of 1992 • Approved Document E (Northern Ireland) 1994 • Approved Document B (England & Wales)

  13. When to specify Fire-Resistant Glazing Building Regulations provide guidance on the safe access and egress of buildings • British Standards Code of Practice for Fire Precautions in the Design of Buildings, specifically BS 5588, give alternative guidance on aspects of fire safety design • Some buildings are more complex in design or incorporate features not covered by Approved Document, Part B, e.g. Atria • Smoke screens are covered by BS 7346: 1990 Part 3 Specification for Smoke Curtains

  14. Fire Tests on Building Materials& Structures • Non load-bearing glazed elements have to be tested to BS 476: Part 22: 1987: Clause 10 • Two classifications • ‘Integrity’ • ‘Insulation’ • Fire performance is rated in 30 minute steps (i.e. 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes) • Fire-resistant glass is specified by two numbers, the first referring to the integrity rating, the second to the insulation rating BS 476: Part 22: 1987

  15. Fire Tests on Building Materials& Structures • IS EN 13501-2 Classification document • ‘Integrity’ • ‘Radiation’ • ‘Insulation’ • Fire performance is rated in given steps (i.e. 20, 30, 60, 90 or 120 minutes) • Fire-resistant glass is specified by three numbers, the first referring to the integrity rating, the second to the insulation rating

  16. EN Standards for Fire Tests European Standards will replace national standards: IS EN 1363 Part 1 - General requirements for fire-resistance tests IS EN 1364 Part 1 - Walls including glazing non-load bearing IS EN 1365 Part 2 - Floors and roofs IS EN 1634Part 1 - Fire Doors IS EN 13501 - 2 - Classification Document* E - Integrity EI - Integrity and Insulation Product standards relating to glass have yet to be published before fire-resistant glass can be CE marked. There will be a transitional period from National Standards *Also : EW – Radiation Classification

  17. Definition of ‘Integrity’ According to BS 476: Part 20: 1987 2.9 Integrity “ The ability of a specimen of a separating element to contain a fire to specified criteria for collapse, freedom from holes, cracks and fissures and sustained flaming on the unexposed face. ”

  18. The ability of a specimen of a separating element to restrict the temperature rise of the unexposed face to below specified levels. ” Definition of ‘Integrity’ & ‘Insulation’ According to BS 476: Part 20: 1987 2.9 Integrity “ The ability of a specimen of a separating element to contain a fire to specified criteria for collapse, freedom from holes, cracks and fissures and sustained flaming on the unexposed face. ” and... 2.8 Insulation It is very important to distinguish between‘Integrity’ and ‘Insulation’ in the application

  19. Fire Test Evidence Make sure that… • The fire-resistant glass was tested to the relevant standard • The fire-resistant glass was tested or assessed as part of the framing system • The fire testing was carried out by independent establishments

  20. Fire Test Evidence Manufacturers should be committed to extensively testing their products and over the years have carried out considerable testing with all products of their fire-resistant glass range Make sure to always ask for test evidence!

  21. Fire Test Evidence Fire Test Summaries FIRERESISTANT GLASSES Pilkington Pyrostop™ 21

  22. Fire Test Evidence Fire Test Summaries 22

  23. Fire Test Evidence Fire Test Summaries 23

  24. ‘Integrity’ or ‘Non-Insulating’ Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass

  25. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Wired Glass & Wired Safety Glass A monolithic wired glass providing integrity fire-resistance and a level of impact safety to Class C • Clear (polished) - for visual clarity • Texture - for obscuration/privacy

  26. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Wired Glass • The most extensively tested range of fire-resistant glass in the world • Tested in softwood, hardwood and steel framing • Cost effective and readily available integrity fire solution Benefits Apex Plaza, Reading

  27. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Wired Glass • Large tested sizes • 1760 x 3000mm (30 minutes integrity) • 1400 x 3000mm (60 minutes integrity) • Wires act as a visual deterrent & easily identify it as a fire-resistant glass • Expected to perform for many years & as long as the frame, with negligible maintenance costs Benefits

  28. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Wired Safety Glass • Offers impact safety • Provides 120 minutes integrity • Fire tested in double glazed units for fire-resistance • Fire tested in a horizontally glazed steel system Additional Benefits Veterinary College,Cambridge

  29. Multi-layer IntumescentLaminate Glass Wired Glass Wired Safety Glass Frame withStops Frame withStops Door Door Bead IntumescentSeal Bead Fixings Door Fixings Bead GlazingMaterial GlazingMaterial Fixings SettingBlock GlazingMaterial Glass Glass SettingBlock SettingBlock Glass Glazing Details 30 mins Integrity For full details of the tested assembly refer to the relevant Test Summary

  30. Ceramic FibreInsulation 63 x 2 mm Sealmaster LtdGL60 Intumescent Liner 4 mm Sealmaster LtdFireglaze Compound 75 mm No.8 Steel Wood Screwsat 180 mm horizontal & 198 mm vertical centres Glass 36 x 28 mm Dark HardwoodGlazing Beads chamfered at 25° 93 x 44 mm Dark Hardwood Frame(nominal density 650 kg/m³) Sealmaster Ltd Masterseal Glazing Details 60 mins Integrity Wired Safety Glass For full details of thetested assembly refer to the relevant Test Summary

  31. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Glass Technology • Clear, multi-layer intumescent laminatedfire-resistant glass provides integrity & partial insulation with impact safety for doors & screens(EW classification of the European standard) • On exposure to fire, the intumescent layers produce an opaque shield that limits the transmission of conductive and radiant heat • Can provide insulation for 15 minutes

  32. 30 minutes integrityglass IntumescentInterlayer Thickness 7.5 mm Internal application only max. tested size 90 cm x 200 cm fire-resistance classification E/EW 30 EI 20 Fire-resistance as thin as a pencil… Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Glass Norton School Designed for use in fire-resistant doors and screens in timber and steel

  33. Glass Glass IntumescentInterlayer IntumescentInterlayer UV Filter Interlayer UV Filter Interlayer Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminate Technology 30 mins integrity 60 mins integrity Thicknessapprox. 13 mm Thickness approx. 10 mm Designed for use in fire-resistant doors & screens in timber & steel Eastgate Row, Chester

  34. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Glass • Proven fire performance • Clear, unobstructed vision in normal everyday use • Its intumescent layers provide an opaque barrier to flames helping reduce panic & fear during evacuation of the building • Available for 30 minutes & for 60 minutes integrity Benefits Holmes Place

  35. Glazing with intumescent interlayers* E30 & EW30 E60 & EW60 * Measured with PilkingtonPyrodur™ (monolithic) Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Glass Its intumescent layers provide partial insulation considerablyreducing the radiant heat transfer through the glass Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve Glazing which remains transparent in case of fire – E30 & E60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes)

  36. Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Technology Benefits • Provides impact safety up to Class A of BS 6206: 1981 • Suitable for internal and external applications, also available in insulating glass units • Test evidence in timber and steel framing (doors and partitions) in multi-panel applications • Max size tested 1430 mm x 2905 mm in steel frame • Readily available • Low, if any, maintenance cost Phoenix House, Dublin

  37. EXAMPLE Wired Pilkington Pyroshield Intumescent laminated Pilkington Pyrodur/Pilkington Pyrodur Plus Modified toughened Vetrotech/St. Gobain Fivestar (Coated) modified toughened CET’s Pyrocet Borosilicate Schott’s Pyran Ceramic Firelite Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass A View of the Market Wide range of integrity fire-resistant glass is available

  38. ‘Integrity’ and ‘Insulation’ Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass

  39. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Technology • Developed more than 25 years ago in Germany to satisfy the integrity and insulation requirement • Ongoing Research and Development projects have improved it since • Blocks the spread of fire and remains cool on non-fire side • A clear, fully insulated fire-resistant glass that provides the highest level of fire and impact protection

  40. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Technology Temperature (°C) 1,000 800 600 400 200 0 Standard time / temperaturecurve Glazing which remains transparent in case of fire – E30 & E60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Time (minutes)

  41. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Technology Heat Radiation Levels after 30 mins into a Standard Fire Furnace 30/0Fire Rated 30/30Fire Rated 100 % ~ 50 % ~ 10 % < 2 % Fire without any Fire-Resistant Glass Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass remaining transparent Integrity Fire-Resistant Glass with multi-layer intumescents InsulationFire-ResistantGlass

  42. Distance to fire-resistant glazing (m) 2 4 6 8 10 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Ignition of cotton Any G 30 fire-resistant glass that remains transparent after 30 min. Incredible pain after 2 seconds Radiation Intensity (W/km2) Point of ignition for light flammable products Skin burns after 20 seconds of exposure Max. tolerable continous value for people Partial insulation glassafter 30 min. Dimension of glazing: Height = 3 m (floor to ceiling), width unlimited Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-Layer Intumescent Laminated Technology Heat Radiation Levels & the Threat to Lives

  43. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-layer Intumescent Laminated Technology On exposure to fire, intumescent silicate interlayers release water to form a glassy foam at only 110°C which is opaque to both heat and light

  44. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Multi-layer Intumescent Laminated Technology • Multi-layer sandwich of glass and sodium silicate intumescent layers • Number of layers is determined by the fire performance rating which needs to be fulfilled • Minimum of 3 interlayers for architectural applications, but more for insulation of up to 60 minutes or more for oil rigs, oil tankers, treasures on view to the public or computer centres • Provides up to 180 minutes protection from a fire to people and equipment

  45. Internal External External Monolithic Monolithic Insulating Glass Unit 60 mins integrity30 mins insulation 60 mins integrity30 mins insulation 60 mins integrity30 mins insulation Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Intumescent Laminated Technology Applications

  46. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Intumescent Laminated Technology Benefits • Proven fire performance • Enables greater use of glass in buildings • “The clear alternative to a solid wall” • Opaque barrier reduces panic during a building evacuation • Ideal for escape & access corridors • Available in large sizes for a wide range of tested framing systems St George’s Shopping Centre,Harrow

  47. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Intumescent Laminated Technology Benefits Where has a 90 minutesinsulation fire-resistant glassbeen used in this example? St George’s Shopping Centre,Harrow

  48. Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass Intumescent Laminated Technology • Suitable for internal and external applications and insulating units • Provides noise control and impact safety up to Class A (BS 6206: 1981) • High light transmission • All thicknesses 21 mm and greater incorporate Pilkington Optiwhite™ • A float glass with a low iron content to reduce the ‘green’ appearance • Readily available • Low, if any, maintenance cost • Shown to perform after having beeninstalled for 20 years (Aachen Hospital) Benefits Leadenhall St.

  49. In Door In Screen Glass Glazing Material Glass Glazing Material Fixings Fixings Bead Bead SettingBlock SettingBlock Frame Door SiliconeCapping Glazing Details 60 mins Integrity / 30 mins Insulation For full details of the tested assembly refer to the relevant Test Summary

  50. A View of Market Insulation Fire-Resistant Glass • Multi-layer intumescent laminated glassavailable today Pilkington Pyrodur and Pyrostop Pyrobelite and Pyrobel (Glaverbel) Swissflam (Vetrotech - St. Gobain) • Insulating glass units comprising two or more panels of toughened glass and one or more intumescent gel-filled cavity Contraflam (Vetrotech - St. Gobain)