CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Crop Productivity Index (CPI) ratings provide a relative ranking of soils based on their potential for crop production. An index can be used to rate the potential yield of one soil against another over a period of time. Sumber:.
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Productivity Index (PI) The PI is available in North Dakota, South Dakota and Minnesota. The productivity index (PI) model is a derived measure of soil productivity. The basic assumption of the PI model is that crop yield is a function of root development, which in turn is controlled by the soil environment. Sumber:.
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) FAKTOR-FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN TANAMAN There are a lot of things that hinder or promote the growth of plants depending on the sources available for their survival. Learn more about what plants need in order to sustain themselves.Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) UNSUR HARA – PERTUMBUHAN TANAMANThere are several aspects of plant nutrition, which need to be considered for better growth of plants. The basic nutrients required for plant growth are divided into two main categories namely micronutrients and macronutrients. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F( Air) Air - Water A majority of growing plants contains as much as 90 percent water. Water is one of the most essential factors required in growth of plants. Water plays a crucial role for efficient photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and transportation of minerals and other nutrients through the plant. Air mempengaruhiprosesmembukanya stomata daun, danmerupakansumberteganganygmengarahkanpertumbuhanakardalamtanah. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) CAHAYA - Light Adequate light is perhaps one of the most important factors influencing plant growth and it is he quantity, quality and duration of light exposure is what matters. Various light sources can be used to provide light to the plants and the sources of light can be classified as natural and artificial sources. The natural source of light is the sun whereas the artificial sources include various types of lighting equipment. Blue light is essential for the growth of the leaves whereas a combination of red and blue light promotes flowering of plants. The artificial light sources can be manipulated to adjust the intensity of the light as well. While it is always good to rely on the natural source of light, during extreme weather conditions and lack of sunlight artificial light is the best option. Also there are certain plants, which require less light for the growth, in such cases the light can be filtered using protective shelters for the plants to allow minimum required amount of sunlight exposure.Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) Temperature Temperature sangatberpengaruhterhadappertumbuhantanaman. Temperature atmosfirdantemperaturtanahmempengaruhipertumbuhantanaman. Optimum temperature is one of the pre-requisites for many of the plant processes, like photosynthesis, respiration, germination, and flowering. Although the values differ for various plants usually cool season plants have 55-65oF as the optimum temperature for germination whereas warm-season plants germinate at 65-75oF. Kisaransuhuuntukfotosintesisdanrespirasi yang optimum beragamdenganspesiestanamandanpersyaratanindividualnya. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) CO2 DAN O2 The manufacturing of sugar by plants requires the presence of carbon dioxide and hence it is one of the vital elements for plant growth. It is a known fact that plants can use as much as 1500 parts per million of carbon dioxide. In case the natural carbon dioxide available in the air is not enough, there exist Carbon dioxide injectors that promote enhanced plant growth. Oxygen is essential for plant respiration and utilization of photosynthesis byproducts. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PRODUKSI TANAMAN = F(FAKTOR PERTUMBUHAN ) Soil Soil with proper humidity, and the right balance of all the minerals and nutrients is one of the essential factors instrumental in plant growth. The type of soil and the quality and the nutrients required in it vary according to the plant species. The right pH balance, which measures the alkalinity or acidity of the soil and presence of certain chemicals, is also instrumental in the growth of plants. Read more at Buzzle: http://www.buzzle.com/articles/plant-growth-factors.html
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Nutrients Localized concentrations of nutrients may alter the form of a root system - nitrogen and phosphorus have a marked effect, but not potassium. Excessive concentration of fertilizer salts will restrict root growth due to osmotic effects or specific toxicities such as with ammonia (NH3) or nitrite (NO2). Safe rates have been established for fertilizers banded with or close to the seed (OMAFRA Publ. 296) What changes occur to roots as a result of variation in nutrient conditions in the rooting zone ? Morphological changes : Root extension changed Localized supply altering root distribution. Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Nutrient effects on the relative growth of roots and shoots: Effects on root hair development - production and elongation Plant growth controlling substances - especially cytokinin production (N deficiency results in decreased cytokinin production or at least decreased transport from the roots). Evidence of aerenchyma formation in maize roots growing in limited N supply. Changes to membrane transport - uptake characteristics modified in zone with localized enhanced branching. Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Soil Acidity – Pertumbuhanakar The major causes of reduced root and shoot growth in acid soils are aluminum and manganese toxicity. Direct effects of hydrogen ion concentration are of lesser importance. Aluminum toxicity affects primarily root growth whereas manganese toxicity affects primarily shoot growth. Deficiencies of calcium, magnesium and phosphorus may also be factors causing reduced growth on acid soils. Solubility of aluminum in soil increases rapidly as soil pH decreases from 5.5 to 4.0. The species of aluminum (A13+, A10H2+) also change. Solubility of manganese increases as pH decreases but is also highly dependent on oxidation-reduction potential in the soil. Excessive aluminum inhibits root growth primarily by affecting meristematic activity. Aluminum toxicity results in short stubby roots. There are, at least in some species, close relations between aluminum toxicity and calcium deficiency. Excessive manganese affects shoot growth directly rather than root growth causing chlorotic or necrotic spots. Plant species differ markedly in degree of adaptation to acid soils through either tolerance or avoidance mechanisms. Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Mechanical Impedance Roots will not grow into rigid pores which are smaller in diameter than the apical meristem of the root. They can however, exert considerable pressure to enlarge or create pores where the rooting medium is weak enough to allow this to occur. The ability of roots to develop in soil is determined by the size and rigidity of soil pores. Mechanical resistance to root penetration - soil strength - is determined by the number, diameter and continuity of soil pores, inter-particle bonding and moisture content. When root growth is impeded there is an increase in the osmotic potential within the cells. The increase probably occurs because of the reduced growth rather than a physiological response to the impedance. Turgor pressure in the zone of cell expansion may also increase (Clark et al., 1996). Physical factors alone cannot account for the marked reduction in root elongation produced by a relatively small resistance. There is good evidence of physiological response mechanisms. Impedance affects apical cells and their subsequent elongation. Elongation will not return to the unimpeded rate until cells formed after the impedance is removed reach the elongation stage. Roots sense physical contact and react to it very quickly. A temporary reduction is barley root elongation rate was observed for about 10 minutes after a root tip made contact with a physical object. If the object offered little resistance, root elongation increased to the original rate after about 20 min. If the root cap was removed, roots were not sensitive to contact, suggesting an important role for the root cap in the response to mechanical impedance. Results from a number of studies suggest that changes in cell wall properties are important in the response of roots. Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) Soil Temperature Root growth can be adversely affected by both sub- and supra-optimal soil temperatures. Work with monocots has often been confused because the shoot meristem remains below ground for a considerable time. Hence the effects on roots may also include indirect effects due to differences in shoot growth between treatments. At both high and low temperature the rate of cell extension is slowed. Changes in anatomical features result from low temperatures eglignification of late metaxylem vessels. These observations suggest changes in enzymatic activity, possibly influenced by changes in the formation of plant hormones such as ABA and cytokinins. Root growth depends on the supply of carbohydrate from the shoot. In monocot species the soil temperature governs shoot growth for a longer period than for dicots because the shoot apex stays below the ground surface for the early stages of vegetative growth rather than being lifted above the surface. In cool soils root growth may be more constrained in monocots than dicots because the expansion of the shoot is limited by soil temperature, whereas shoot growth in dicots will depend on air temperature. Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN) EfektemperaturthdPertumbuhanAkarTanaman: Sumber: http://www.uoguelph.ca/~mgoss/three/410-N03f.html.
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(PEMADATAN TANAH) Pemadatan Tanah Tanah ygpadat Tanah ygstrukturnyabagus Sumber: http://organicsoilsolutions.com/services/core-aeration-and-compost-top-dressing/
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(AERASI TANAH) Aeration is simply the removal of hundreds of small soil plugs from a lawn, to help break up soil compaction and improve root growth. Turf grass in compacted soil grows slowly, lacks vigor and becomes thin or does not grow at all. Core aeration removes small cores of soil, depositing them on the surface of the turf. This improves the depth and extent of turf grass rooting. Core aeration will reduce soil compaction and enhance thatch breakdown, thus improving soil water uptake and decreasing water runoff and puddling. Core aeration allows air, water, and fertilizer to better reach the root zone. This stimulates root growth to create healthier, stronger turf grass plants. Sumber: http://www.greenergrass.biz/Aeration.html
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(POROSITAS TANAH) An approach for using general soil physical condition–root growth relationships to predict seedling growth response to site preparation tillage in loblolly pine plantations L.A. Morris, K.H. Ludovici, S.J. Torreano, E.A. Carter, M.C. Lincoln, R.E. Will Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 227, Issues 1–2, 15 May 2006, Pages 169–177. Relationship between air-filled porosity and root growth used in model simulation in its original form (dashed line) plotted against root elongation and as relative root growth (solid line) normalized to 1 for maximum observed growth (adapted from Zou et al., 2001a). Sumber: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112706001216
PERTUMBUHAN AKAR = F(Fisika TANAH) Examples of rooting pattern and growth habit when roots are physically impeded or prevented from penetrating a root-restricting soil layer (R.G. Barber) Sumber: http://www.fao.org/docrep/006/y4690e/y4690e07.htm.
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING The index of crop production is the indicator of the level of crop production. It reflects changes in the production volume and production cycle. The index covers 21 major crops and 20 vegetables and fruits, accounting for 67.7% of total value of agricultural products. Monthly index is calculated, then quarterly and yearly indices are derived as the average of monthly series. Sumber:. http://www2.bot.or.th/statistics/Download/EC_EI_010_ENG.PDF
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING Data are from Output of Major Agricultural Production (EC_RL_001). The index is calculated using Laspeyres’ formula, with 1988 as the base year. Monthly production of base year (1988) is the average of total production of each crop for the entire year. Weight applied to each product is the relative value-added of each product to that of the entire agricultural sector as appeared in the national account disseminated by the National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). The formula used in the index calculation is as follows : Sumber:.
CPI = CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX RATING The formula used in the index calculation is as follows : Dimana: = Crop production index for month t, = Quantity of crop product i of month t in the current year = Quantity of crop product i in the base year 1988 = Weight of product i in the base year 1988 n = Number of crop products covered in the calculation. Sumber:.
ASPEK FISIK PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Hubunganantarasumberdayatanahdansistempertanaman A traditional view of the influence of soil is that it provides an opportunity, or a constraint on the type of cropping system that can be implemented and its productivity. Pandanganyglebihbertanggung-jawabialahbahwa ‘TANAH' mengkombinasikanberbagaisifatygsalingberhubungandansecaralangsungmempengaruhiprosedurpertanaman. Sumber:http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9926E/v9926e04.htm.
ASPEK FISIK PRODUKTIVITAS TANAMAN Sumber:http://www.fao.org/docrep/V9926E/v9926e04.htm.
. Soil-Plant Relations: Natural Processes Soil plays a key role in plant growth. Beneficial aspects to plants include providing physical support, heat, water, nutrients, and oxygen. Heat, light, and oxygen are also obtained by the atmosphere, but the roots of many plants also require oxygen. Elemental nutrients, dissolved in soil water solution, are derived from soil minerals and organic material Sumber:. http://cnx.org/content/m41620/latest/#id1165166545097
Relationship among unavailable, slowly available, and readily available potassium in the soil-plant system.. Three forms of K (unavailable, slowly available or fixed, readily available or exchangeable) exist in soils. A description of these forms and their relationship to each other is provided in the paragraphs that follow. Sumber: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html.
Structures involved in Absorption: The root terminal region is made up various structures such as; from the tip towards base, apical meristem, zone of elongation, root hair zone and zone of maturation. The root hair zone is studded with root hairs; they are the extensions of epidermal cells in the form of tubular structures. Most of the water is absorbed by the plants is through root hair zone. The figure shows the pathway of soil water into root system. Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm
BULU AKAR – PENYERAPAN AIR DAN HARA. Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm
.ANATOMI BULU AKAR Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm
Sumber air danPerilaku air yang masukkedalamtanah. Sebagian air hujanatau air irigasidisimpandalamtanah zone perakarantanaman . Jumlah air yang dapatdisimpaniniitergantungpadakedalaman zone perakarandan WHC-tanahnya. Air inilah yang akandimanfaatkanolehtanamanuntukpertumbuhannya. Kedalamanperakaranmerupakankarakteristik yang sangatpenting. Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
. The relationship between water distribution in the soil and the concept of irrigation scheduling when 50 percent of the PAW has been depleted.. Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
. The amount of water extracted by plants is influenced by the distribution of the root in the soil.. Water uptake by a specific crop is closely related to its root distribution in the soil. About 70 percent of a plant's roots are found in the upper half of the crop's maximum rooting depth. Deeper roots can extract moisture to keep the plant alive, but they do not extract suffficient water to maintain optimum growth. When adequate moisture is present, water uptake by the crop is about the same as its root distribution. Thus, about 70 percent of the water used by the crop comes from the upper half of the root zone (Figure 10). This zone is the effective root depth. Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
.. . Effective Root Depth Rooting depth is the depth of the soil reservoir that the plant can reach to get PAW. Crop roots do not extract water uniformly from the entire root zone. Thus,the effective root depth is that portion of the root zone where the crop extracts the majority of its water. Effective root depth is determined by both crop and soil properties. Plant Influence on Effective Root Depth. Different species of plants have different potential rooting depths. The potential rooting depth is the maximum rooting depth of a crop when grown in a moist soil with no barriers or restrictions that inhibit root elongation. Potential rooting depths of most agricultural crops important in North Carolina range from about 2 to 5 feet. For example, the potential rooting depth of corn is about 4 feet. Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
Ciri-ciri Tanah ygmempengaruhikedalamanakar ….. Efek Tanah thdKedalamanefektifPerakaran. The maximum rooting depth of crops in North Carolina is usually less than their potential rooting depth and is restricted by soil chemical or physical barriers. Subsoil di North Carolina mempunyai pH = 4.5 - 5.0, menjadibarierkimiabagipertumbuhanakar. Kedalamanakar pd kondisitidakadabarierfisik, tetapiadabarierkimia, yaitu subsoil ygmasam, pH rendah Kedalamanakar pd kondisiadabarierfisik, cadaskerasatautapakbajak, subsoil masam, pH rendah Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
. Corn rooting depth in North Carolina during various stages of development. Irrigation scheduling should be based on effective root depth rather than maximum rooting depth. Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.
. Why deep-dug beds are important? Deep digging makes the soil loose and friable. This enables the plant roots to penetrate easily, so a steady stream of nutrients can flow into the stems and leaves. Different plants have varying rooting depths, so extract nutrients and moisture from different points of the soil profile. The cultivation of different plants in the same part of the bed from season to season does not overburden the soil. Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?
. Root System of a Transplanted Cabbage Plant . Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .
. Short Taproot of a Pepper Plant Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .
. Thin Taproot of a Cucumber Plant Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .
. Fibrous Root System of an Onion Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .
PEMADATAN TANAH - PERTUMBUHAN AKAR. Pertumbuhanakarterhambatkarenapemadatantanaholehpukulan air hujan, pengolahantanahdanjalurjalankendaraan. Source: Compaction-Soil Management Series 2. University of Minnesota Extension Service, BU-7400 Kerakpermukaan Pemadatanpermukaan (dibawahjalurjalankendaraan) Pertumbuhanakartdakterhambat Tapakbajak (dibawahkedalamanolahtanah) Pemadatandalamatau Subsoil Sumber: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/components/3115s01.html .
Tree Root Growth Requirements Dr. Kim D. Coder (The University of Georgia July 2000) Graphical representation of compaction effects on soil. Sumber: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/index.php3?docID=393&docHistory=2&docHistory=412.
PersyaratanTumbuhAkar Brief list of root growth resource requirements. Growth in trees may not be a positive increase in living mass, but does represent expansion of tissues into new spaces. For roots, the tips elongate and the tissues thicken in diameter. Lateral roots are developed adventitiously and allowed to elongate and radially thicken. Root density, mass, and activity vary with internal and external conditions. SumberdayaygdiperlukanuntukpertumbuhanakardisajikanTabel 1. Sumber: . http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/index.php3?docID=393&docHistory=2&docHistory=412
. Root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0034-737X2011000400015&script=sci_arttext
KARAKTERISTIK TANAMAN - AKAR. Potatoes produce a fibrous root system. These roots are at best no more than 24in long. Thus potatoes are shallow rooted compared to cereals for example, which can root to at least 47in depth. As a result, potatoes are often unable to exploit nutrients and soil moisture at depth within a soil profile. While root growth occurs when soil temperatures are between 50 to 95˚F (10 to 35˚C), best, most active root development is at soil temperatures of between 59 and 68˚F (15 and 20˚C). Efeksuhutanahterhadapperkembanganakartanamankentang Sumber:http://www.yara.us/agriculture/crops/potato/key-facts/agronomic-principles/default.aspx.
EfekTeksturdan BI tanahterhadapperkembanganakartomat Exploring the interacting effect of soil texture and bulk density on root system development in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.). Saoirse R. Tracy, Colin R. Black, Jeremy A. Roberts, SachaJ. Mooney. Environmental and Experimental Botany Volume 91, July 2013, Pages 38–47. Diagram showing typical root systems grown in clay loam (A) and loamy sand (B) soil at all bulk densities and destructively harvested at 3 (upper row) and 10 days after transplanting (DAT; lower row). Gradien Bar mencerminkanpeningkatan BI tanahdarikirikekanan. Sumber:. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847213000476
Effect of Ca:H ratio in solution on relative root length in soybean (Sanzonowicz et al., 1998a).. Padakondisilingkungantanahmasam (kaya H+), pertumbuhanakarkedelaiterhambat; diperlukanpenambahan Ca++ untukmemperbaikipertumbuhanakar. Nilaikritisrasiomolaritas Ca/H sekitar 750. Sumber:. http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/ssc541de/units/ch3/main3_5.html
Effect of Ca:Al ratio in solution on relative root length in soybean (Ferrufino et al., 2000). . Padakondisilingkungantanah yang kaya Al-tersedia, pertumbuhanpanjangakarkedelaiterhambat; diperlukanpenambahan Ca untukmemperbaikipertumbuhanpanjangakar. Sumber:. http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/ssc541de/units/ch3/main3_5.html
Root growth potential and seedling morphological attributes of narra (PterocarpusindicusWilld.) transplants R.M Gazal, C.A Blanche, W.M Carandang. Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 195, Issues 1–2. 28 June 2004, Pages 259–266. Effect of soil moisture regimes (soil at 50, 75 and 100%) of field capacity (FC), on root growth potential: (a) number of new roots and (b) length of new roots of narra transplants 7 days after transplanting. Means with the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level based on Duncan’s new multiple range test. Sumber:. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112704002191