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CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX CPI SOIL ROOT SHOOT CROP YIELD. . Soil-Plant Relations: Natural Processes.

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slide1
CROP PRODUCTIVITY INDEX

CPI

SOIL ROOT SHOOT

CROP YIELD

slide2
. Soil-Plant Relations: Natural Processes

Soil plays a key role in plant growth. Beneficial aspects to plants include providing physical support, heat, water, nutrients, and oxygen. Heat, light, and oxygen are also obtained by the atmosphere, but the roots of many plants also require oxygen.

Elemental nutrients, dissolved in soil water solution, are derived from soil minerals and organic material

Sumber:. http://cnx.org/content/m41620/latest/#id1165166545097

slide3
Relationship among unavailable, slowly available, and readily available potassium in the soil-plant system..

Three forms of K (unavailable, slowly available or fixed, readily available or exchangeable) exist in soils.

A description of these forms and their relationship to each other is provided in the paragraphs that follow.

Sumber: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/dc6794.html.

slide4
Structures involved in Absorption:

The root terminal region is made up various structures such as; from the tip towards base, apical meristem, zone of elongation, root hair zone and zone of maturation. The root hair zone is studded with root hairs; they are the extensions of epidermal cells in the form of tubular structures.

Most of the water is absorbed by the plants is through root hair zone.  The figure shows the pathway of soil water into root system.

Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm

slide5
BULU AKAR – PENYERAPAN AIR DAN HARA.

Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm

slide6
.ANATOMI BULU AKAR

Sumber:. http://preuniversity.grkraj.org/html/4_PLANT_AND_WATER_RELATIONSHIP.htm

slide7
Sumber air danPerilaku air yang masukkedalamtanah.

Sebagian air hujanatau air irigasidisimpandalamtanah zone perakarantanaman .

Jumlah air yang dapatdisimpaniniitergantungpadakedalaman zone perakarandan WHC-tanahnya.

Air inilah yang akandimanfaatkanolehtanamanuntukpertumbuhannya.

Kedalamanperakaranmerupakankarakteristik yang sangatpenting.

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide8
. The relationship between water distribution in the soil and the concept of irrigation scheduling when 50 percent of the PAW has been depleted..

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide9
. The amount of water extracted by plants is influenced by the distribution of the root in the soil..

Water uptake by a specific crop is closely related to its root distribution in the soil. About 70 percent of a plant's roots are found in the upper half of the crop's maximum rooting depth. Deeper roots can extract moisture to keep the plant alive, but they do not extract suffficient water to maintain optimum growth. When adequate moisture is present, water uptake by the crop is about the same as its root distribution. Thus, about 70 percent of the water used by the crop comes from the upper half of the root zone (Figure 10). This zone is the effective root depth.

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide10
.. . Effective Root Depth

Rooting depth is the depth of the soil reservoir that the plant can reach to get PAW.

Crop roots do not extract water uniformly from the entire root zone. Thus,the effective root depth is that portion of the root zone where the crop extracts the majority of its water.

Effective root depth is determined by both crop and soil properties.

Plant Influence on Effective Root Depth. Different species of plants have different potential rooting depths.

The potential rooting depth is the maximum rooting depth of a crop when grown in a moist soil with no barriers or restrictions that inhibit root elongation. Potential rooting depths of most agricultural crops important in North Carolina range from about 2 to 5 feet.

For example, the potential rooting depth of corn is about 4 feet.

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide11
Ciri-ciri Tanah ygmempengaruhikedalamanakar …..

Efek Tanah thdKedalamanefektifPerakaran.

The maximum rooting depth of crops in North Carolina is usually less than their potential rooting depth and is restricted by soil chemical or physical barriers.

Subsoil di North Carolina mempunyai pH = 4.5 - 5.0, menjadibarierkimiabagipertumbuhanakar.

Kedalamanakar pd kondisitidakadabarierfisik, tetapiadabarierkimia, yaitu subsoil ygmasam, pH rendah

Kedalamanakar pd kondisiadabarierfisik, cadaskerasatautapakbajak, subsoil masam, pH rendah

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide12
. Corn rooting depth in North Carolina during various stages of development. Irrigation scheduling should be based on effective root depth rather than maximum rooting depth.

Sumber: http://www.bae.ncsu.edu/programs/extension/evans/ag452-1.html.

slide13
. Why deep-dug beds are important?

Deep digging makes the soil loose and friable. This enables the plant roots to penetrate easily, so a steady stream of nutrients can flow into the stems and leaves.

Different plants have varying rooting depths, so extract nutrients and moisture from different points of the soil profile. The cultivation of different plants in the same part of the bed from season to season does not overburden the soil.

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?

slide14
. Root System of a Transplanted Cabbage Plant

.

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .

slide15
. Short Taproot of a Pepper Plant

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .

slide16
. Thin Taproot of a Cucumber Plant

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .

slide17
. Fibrous Root System of an Onion

Sumber: http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod? .

slide18
PEMADATAN TANAH - PERTUMBUHAN AKAR.

Pertumbuhanakarterhambatkarenapemadatantanaholehpukulan air hujan, pengolahantanahdanjalurjalankendaraan.

Source: Compaction-Soil Management Series 2. University of Minnesota Extension Service, BU-7400

Kerakpermukaan

Pemadatanpermukaan (dibawahjalurjalankendaraan)

Pertumbuhanakartdakterhambat

Tapakbajak (dibawahkedalamanolahtanah)

Pemadatandalamatau Subsoil

Sumber: http://www.extension.umn.edu/distribution/cropsystems/components/3115s01.html .

slide19
Tree Root Growth Requirements

Dr. Kim D. Coder (The University of Georgia July 2000)

Graphical representation of compaction effects on soil.

Sumber: http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/index.php3?docID=393&docHistory[]=2&docHistory[]=412.

slide20
PersyaratanTumbuhAkar

Brief list of root growth resource requirements.

Growth in trees may not be a positive increase in living mass, but does represent expansion of tissues into new spaces. For roots, the tips elongate and the tissues thicken in diameter.

Lateral roots are developed adventitiously and allowed to elongate and radially thicken. Root density, mass, and activity vary with internal and external conditions.

SumberdayaygdiperlukanuntukpertumbuhanakardisajikanTabel 1.

Sumber: . http://warnell.forestry.uga.edu/service/library/index.php3?docID=393&docHistory[]=2&docHistory[]=412

slide21
. Root growth of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

Sumber: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0034-737X2011000400015&script=sci_arttext

slide22
KARAKTERISTIK TANAMAN - AKAR.

Potatoes produce a fibrous root system. These roots are at best no more than 24in long. Thus potatoes are shallow rooted compared to cereals for example, which can root to at least 47in depth. As a result, potatoes are often unable to exploit nutrients and soil moisture at depth within a soil profile.

While root growth occurs when soil temperatures are between 50 to 95˚F (10 to 35˚C), best, most active root development is at soil temperatures of between 59 and 68˚F (15 and 20˚C).

Efeksuhutanahterhadapperkembanganakartanamankentang

Sumber:http://www.yara.us/agriculture/crops/potato/key-facts/agronomic-principles/default.aspx.

slide23
EfekTeksturdan BI tanahterhadapperkembanganakartomat

Exploring the interacting effect of soil texture and bulk density on root system development in tomato (Solanumlycopersicum L.).

Saoirse R. Tracy, Colin R. Black, Jeremy A. Roberts, Sacha J. Mooney.

Environmental and Experimental Botany

Volume 91, July 2013, Pages 38–47.

Diagram showing typical root systems grown in clay loam (A) and loamy sand (B) soil at all bulk densities and destructively harvested at 3 (upper row) and 10 days after transplanting (DAT; lower row).

Gradien Bar mencerminkanpeningkatan BI tanahdarikirikekanan.

Sumber:. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847213000476

slide24
Effect of Ca:H ratio in solution on relative root length in soybean (Sanzonowicz et al., 1998a)..

Padakondisilingkungantanahmasam (kaya H+), pertumbuhanakarkedelaiterhambat; diperlukanpenambahan Ca++ untukmemperbaikipertumbuhanakar.

Nilaikritisrasiomolaritas Ca/H sekitar 750.

Sumber:. http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/ssc541de/units/ch3/main3_5.html

slide25
Effect of Ca:Al ratio in solution on relative root length in soybean (Ferrufino et al., 2000). .

Padakondisilingkungantanah yang kaya Al-tersedia, pertumbuhanpanjangakarkedelaiterhambat; diperlukanpenambahan Ca untukmemperbaikipertumbuhanpanjangakar.

Sumber:. http://courses.soil.ncsu.edu/ssc541de/units/ch3/main3_5.html

slide26
Root growth potential and seedling morphological attributes of narra (PterocarpusindicusWilld.) transplants

R.M Gazal, C.A Blanche, W.M Carandang. Forest Ecology and Management. Volume 195, Issues 1–2. 28 June 2004, Pages 259–266.

Effect of soil moisture regimes (soil at 50, 75 and 100%) of field capacity (FC), on root growth potential:

(a) number of new roots and (b) length of new roots of narra transplants 7 days after transplanting.

Means with the same letters are not significantly different at 5% level based on Duncan’s new multiple range test.

Sumber:. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112704002191

slide27
. Fine roots of trees as indicators of environmental change, soil nutrient status and forest health

Responakar-akarrambut (halus) terhadapkondisilingkungantanah (lengastanah, temperature dankimiawilarutan-tanah) danfluktuasinyajugadievaluasipadakondisilingkunganalamiah. Penelitianinimenunjukkanbahwa:

Lengastanahdankimiawilarutantanahmenunjukkanvariasimusimandantahunan

Akar-akarrambutPinussylvestristidakterpengaruhinegatifolehkondisilingkungantanahygjelekkalaulengastanahtidakmembatasipertumbuhanakar

If soil moitsure deficits are accompanied by an unfavourable soil chemical environment (high Al, low Ca:Al ratio), this may reduce fine root growth and increase mortality as well as alter the vertical distribution of the fine roots.

Sumber: http://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/infd-626awt.

slide28
Fibrous root system of onion, 3.5 months old..

Some of the main roots ran outward, almost parallel to the soil surface, to distances of 6 to 8 inches before turning downward at an angle of about 45 degrees. These had a maximum lateral spread of about 12 inches on all sides of the plant. Between these horizontal roots and the vertically descending ones, the soil volume thus delimited was filled with numerous roots Which extended outward to various distances and then turned downward, or pursued an outward and downward course throughout their entire extent

Sumber: http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/010137veg.roots/010137ch3.html.

slide29
A maturing onion excavated August 21. Root growth is not yet completed. Some of the roots shown in Fig. 9 had died..

From 20 to 25 roots arose from the base of the bulb. A few ran vertically downward but most of them ran outward at various angles, even to near the horizontal, and then gradually turned downward. The volume of soil delimited at the previous excavation (which had an area on the surface of about 4 square feet) had not been increased except in depth. The former working level of 20 inches had been extended to 32 inches. A maximum depth of 39 inches was found

Sumber: http://www.soilandhealth.org/01aglibrary/010137veg.roots/010137ch3.html.

slide30
Crop Rooting Depth

.

Plant Rooting Characteristics

While the soil's texture impacts the amount of stored soil moisture, the plant's rooting characteristics determine how much of the soil moisture can be accessed by the plant. A deep rooted crop has access to a greater amount of soil moisture than does a shallow-rooted crop, usually allowing it to go longer between irrigations. The rooting depths of a number of crops are shown in the table below.

The rooting depth may be affected by the soil depth, constraining soil layers (hardpan, plowpan, etc.), or even abrupt changes in soil texture. When in doubt about the soil profile or rooting depth, use a soil auger or better yet a backhoe, to determine the rooting depth and soil profile textural characteristics.

Sumber:. http://ucanr.edu/sites/Drought/Agriculture/Irrigation_Scheduling/Evapotranspiration_Scheduling_ET/Frequency_of_Irrigation/Crop_Rooting_Depth/

slide31
Depths to which the roots of mature crops will deplete the available water supply when grown in a deep permeable, well-drained soil under average conditions..

Source: Chapter 11, "Sprinkler Irrigation," Section 15, Natural Resources Conservation Service National Engineering Handbook Sumber:. http://ucanr.edu/sites/Drought/Agriculture/Irrigation_Scheduling/Evapotranspiration_Scheduling_ET/Frequency_of_Irrigation/Crop_Rooting_Depth/

slide32
Better rooting = Greater yield potential

In 3 weeks from planting there was over a 40% increase in root mass where Avail treated phosphate was used..

Sumber:.

slide33
.

Root-hair Zone

The root-hair zone is the zone in the differentiating root tip where the final maturation and full differentiation of all the cells occurs.  The prominent part of this zone is the root hairs themselves. This is where most of the water and minerals are absorbed by the root.

Sumber:. http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/botglosr.htm

slide34
BULU AKAR – ROOT HAIR.

Buluakarmerupakanperluasanprotoplasmiksel-sel epidermis.  

Buluakarinimemperluaspermukaanakar , sehinggamemudahkanpenyerapan air danharadaritanah.

Sumber:. http://www2.puc.edu/Faculty/Gilbert_Muth/botglosr.htm#Root%20Hairs

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