OVERVIEW OF SOIL INFORMATION AND SOIL PROTECTION POLICIES IN KOSOVO Mr. Afrim Sharku Agro Consulting Group Naum Veqilharxhi , Fushë Kosovë, Kosovo-UNMIK E-mail: email@example.com
About 88 % agriculture land is privately owned. • The average land of family owing is 2.2 ha which is in average divided in 8 plots • Round 90% plots are less than 2.5 ha. • 60 % rural inhabitance with density of 204 habitants in km2 (square) • In Europe 0.5 ha agricultural land for a habitant • In Kosovo 0.15 - 0.18 ha agric. land for a habitant
Irrigated land • Potential for irrigation in Kosovo 200.000 ha • Total projected area are around 72.440 ha. • Sprinkler irrigation 33.490 ha. • Surface irrigation 38.950 ha. • Total irrigated area 80’s around 54.490 ha. • Total irrigated area in 2000 are around 19.150 ha.
Land damage • The damage problems in Kosovo can be divided in three main groups: • Contamination(ingraining of different polluters in land, which results in physical, chemical and biological changes) • Degradation (the process of damaging which is seen in the case of physical, water-physical, chemical and biological degradation of the land) • Destruction (the physical process of destruction of the land as an effect of which the land losses it production function)
1. Contamination(the incoming pollution in the land which affects the physical, chemical and biological change of the land) 1.1 Damages from the appliance of fertilizers and pesticide • In first six months in 2004 approximately was imported : • 9.709 t chemical fertilizers 1.2 Damages from the war effects 1.3 Damages from the vehicle pollution • The number of the registered vehicles is 215.000 plus 15-20% of KFOR and UNMIK. • The majority of them are older than 20 years
2. Degradation(the infiltration of different polluters in the land causing differences in lands physical, chemical and biological ingredients) 2.1 Flooding as a result of snowing and deterioration of the river flows • The report of the Min.of Agr.(March 06) • 5232 ha or 30 % fall seeding are destroyed 2.2 Erosion as a result of forest reclamation • In Kosovo 455 000 ha (41 %) of forests, from what 56% is state owned and 44% privat owned. • Only from legal felling in 2001 was cut 30.195 m3 technical wood and 145.695 m3 for heating. • How much was felling illegally? No one knows 2.3 Irregular application of agricultural measures • The production tradition has continued in old fashion, disregarding the new techniques and technology.
3. Destruction(a process of physical destruction of land resulting in land decrease of productivity function) 3.1 Consequent landreduction 3.1.1 Industrial dump and surface digging • In 2000 UNMIK has reported results of an analysis which had showed that the level of the lead (Pb) 200 times more than allowed with standards given by World Health Organization (WHO) • Second problem is the ash of Kosovo Electric Corporation (KEK) who covers about 618 ha of land. 3.1.2 Vehicle and their spare part dumping 3.1.3 Temporary settlement etc. 3.2 Ongoing land reduction as an effect of the change of the land destination 3.2.1 Housing (without planning or illegal) • In the last decade there has been seen a loss of more than 20 000 Ha in accordance with the data given by Ministry of Environment and Spatial Planning. • If there would be sowing of potatoes in the same area the farmers would gain 100 M €/year or 1 billion per 10 yrs. 3.2.2 Construction with destination for industry, economy, trade, sport etc. 3.2.3 Trafficking 3.2.4 Sand exploitation form the river basements
The above mentioned problems are as a consequence of: • Incomplete laws and regulations and inefficient implementation • Lack of strategy for management and good use of natural resources • Lack of system information and quality monitoring of the land • Lack of identification of the land destruction • Low level of re-cultivation and readjustment of demaged land etc.
SOIL PROTECTION POLICIES IN KOSOVO ASPAUK (2003) - Pollution of Agricultural Land Short-term priorities • Installation of Task force • Analysis of available data on land pollution • Prepare map with sources of pollution • Access current regulations on pollution • Prepare action plan for task force Medium term priorities (within 2 years) • Prevent further pollution through updated regulations, monitoring and information campaign • Capacity building in ministries and municipalities • Support institutions specialised in pollution analysis Long term priorities towards EU accession) • Introduce EU pollution regulations, standards and procedures • Specify principle of „Polluter pays and repairs damage“
The policy of protection and land use MAFRD in the role of protection and duly use of land suggests the onward future directions • Completion of the legislation infrastructure aiming protection of the land surface. • Rational use of the fertilizers and pesticides. • Creation of the agro- zone and stopping the further fragmentation • Obstruction of the further land destruction • Obstruction of further erosion
MAFRD planed activities to protect the land for the future • Cooperation with relevant institution with aim to assuring effective protection of the agricultural land. • Maintain and update the agricultural land classification system in the basis of its potential. • Monitors and advises farmers to apply new technologies
Priorities on the land protection The Priorities of MAFRD • Construction of land cadastres • Public information campaign on the importance of land surfaces and matching actions of civil society in this direction. • Establishment of the monitoring system for the space and environment • Re-cultivation and appropriate use of agricultural land. • Establishment of the fines on the violation of the regulations on the land protection etc.
Priorities on the land protection • Priorities for the environment of Kosovo 2005 – 2015 • Completion of the regulation for the protection of the environment • Establishment of competent institutions, as: • Advising institutions • Monitoring institutions • Inspections institutions • Establishment of Ecofund • Development of longterm educational programs and information campaignes • Support to the scientific projects with focus on environment • Support to the concepts of free-pollution import industries etc.
Agriculture Land Utilisation Project (ALUP) In consultation with MAFRD,ALUP is doing the following: • Facilitate the implementation of the Law on Agriculture Land • Develop land consolidation techniques for Kosovo, • Improve building and development control • Encourage the development of the land market • Support intergovernmental coordination and cooperation, both between ministries and also between central and municipal government.
Planned Results R1: Development of Regulation Framework R2: Presenting modern land consolidation techniques R3: Presenting Modern Practices of Environment and Spatial planning R4: Encourage the development of land Market R5: Inter governmental Cooperation and Coordination
www.mmph.org www.mafrd-ks.org www.agrpr.cjb.net Thank you!