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The Constitution Main Menu Amendment Process Chapter 7: Vocabulary Bill of Rights Article I: Legislative Branch Chapter 8: Vocabulary The Articles of Confederation Article II: Executive Branch Principles of Constitution Constitutional Convention Article III: Judicial Branch

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slide2

Main Menu

Amendment

Process

Chapter 7:

Vocabulary

Bill of Rights

Article I:

Legislative Branch

Chapter 8:

Vocabulary

The Articles

of

Confederation

Article II:

Executive Branch

Principles of

Constitution

Constitutional

Convention

Article III:

Judicial Branch

Goals of

Constitution

Preamble

Articles IV-VII

Ideas used in

Constitution

slide3

Chapter 7 Vocabulary

15. Judicial branch

16. New Jersey Plan

17. Compromise

18. Great Compromise

19. Three-fifths compromise

20. Republic

21. Separation of powers.

22. Federalist

23. Antifederalists

24. The Federalist Papers

25. Amend

26. Bill of Rights

1. Constitution

2. bill of rights

3. Execute

4. Articles of Confederation

5. Cede

6. Currency

7. Land Ordinance of 1785

8. Northwest Ordinance

9. Depression

10. Shay’s Rebellion

11. Constitutional Convention

12. Virginia Plan

13. Legislative branch

14. Executive branch

slide4

Constitution

A constitution is a document that sets out the laws, principles, organization, and processes of a government.

slide5

bill of rights

A bill of rights is a list of freedoms that a government promises to protect.

slide6

Execute

Execute means to carry out.

slide7

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was the first American Constitution, which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states in 1777.

slide8

Cede

Cede means to give up.

slide9

Currency

Currency is another name for money.

slide10

Land Ordinance of 1785

The Land Ordinance of 1785 was a law for settling the Northwest Territory.

slide11

Northwest Ordinance

  • The Northwest Ordinance was a 1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory.
  • It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and outlawed slavery in the northwest territory.
slide12

Depression

  • A Depression is a period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall and unemployment rises.
  • After the Revolution, the United States was in a depression.
slide13

Shay's Rebellion

  • Shay’s Rebellion was a 1786 rebellion led by a farmer named Daniel Shay who lost his farm in Massachusetts.
slide14

Constitutional Convention

  • The Constitutional Convention was a meeting of state representatives on May 25, 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • The meeting took place at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
  • Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, the delegates wrote a new constitution.

Independence Hall in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

slide15

Virginia Plan

  • The Virginia Plan at the Constitutional Convention was a plan that called for a strong national government with three branches of government and a two chamber legislature.
slide16

Legislative Branch

  • The legislative branch is the branch of government that makes laws.
  • The legislative branch consists of two houses. When a legislative branch consists or two houses, it is called a bicameral legislature.
  • The two houses are the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • Together they are called Congress.

The Capital Building where Congress meets.

slide17

Executive Branch

  • The executive branch is the branch of government that carries the laws out, or enforces the laws.
  • The Executive branch is the president, vice president and numerous departments of the executive branch.

The White House

slide18

Judicial Branch

  • The judicial branch is the branch of government that decides if laws are carried out fairly.
  • They judicial branch interprets (explains the laws).
  • The judicial branch consists of the Supreme Court and lower courts.

The Supreme Court

slide19

New Jersey Plan

  • The New Jersey Plan was a plan at the Constitutional Convention that called for three branches of government with a one house legislative branch.
  • This plan favored small states.
slide20

Compromise

  • A compromise is a settlement in which each side gives up some of its demands in order to reach an agreement.
slide21

Great Compromise

  • The Great Compromise was a plan at the Constitutional Convention that settled the differences between large and small states.

+

=

Plan

Plan

Great Compromise

slide22

Three-Fifths Compromise

  • The Three-Fifths Compromise was an agreement at the Constitutional Convention that three fifths of slaves in any state be counted in its population towards a states representation in the House of Representatives.
slide23

Republic

  • A republic is a system of government in which citizens choose representatives to govern them.
slide24

Separation of Powers

  • Separation of powers is a principle by which powers of government are divided among separate branches.
slide25

Federalists

  • The Federalists were people who supported the new constitution created at the Constitutional Convention.
  • They favored a strong central government.
slide26

Antifederalists

  • Antifederalists were people against the new constitution created at the Constitutional Convention.
  • They liked stronger state governments and a weak central government.
slide27

The Federalists Papers

  • The Federalist papers were a series of essays by Federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of ratifying the Constitution.

James Madison

slide28

Amend

  • Amend means to change.
  • To amend the Constitution, an amendment must be added.
slide29

Bill of Rights

  • The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the United States Constitution.
  • They protect our basic liberties.
slide30

Chapter 8 Vocabulary

  • Preamble
  • Domestic tranquility
  • General welfare
  • Liberty
  • Popular sovereignty
  • Limited government
  • Checks and balances
  • Federalism
  • House of Representatives
  • Senate
  • Bill
  • Electoral college

13. Supreme Court

14. Appeal

15. unconstitutional

16. Veto

17. Override

18. Impeach

19. First amendment

20. Second amendment

21. Citizen

22. Immigrant

23. Patriotism

slide31

Preamble

  • A Preamble is an introduction to a declaration, constitution, or other official document.
  • It starts with “We the People” because power starts with the people.
slide32

Domestic Tranquillity

  • Domestic Tranquility means peace and order at home.
  • It is one of the six goals stated in the Preamble of the Constitution.
slide33

General Welfare

  • General welfare is the well being of all the citizens of a nation.
  • It is one of the six goals mentioned in the Preamble of the Constitution.
slide34

Liberty

  • Liberty is another word for freedom.
slide35

Popular Sovereignty

  • Popular Sovereignty is a principle of the United States Constitution that states that the people have the right to create, alter or abolish their government.
  • In other words, the people have the power in government.
slide36

Limited Government

  • Limited government is a principle of the United States Constitution that states that government has only the powers the Constitution gives it.
slide37

Checks and Balances

  • Checks and balances is a principal of the United States Constitution that safeguards against abuse of power by giving each branch of government the power to check the other branches.

&

slide38

Federalism

  • Federalism is the principle in the United States Constitution that establishes the division of power between the federal government and the states.
slide39

House of Representatives

  • The House of Representatives is the larger of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the United States government.
  • Representation is based on population.
slide40

Senate

  • The Senate is the smaller of the two bodies that make up the legislative branch of the United States government.
  • Each state has only two senators.
slide41

Bill

  • A bill is a proposed law.
  • All bills start in Congress, because they are the branch of government that makes laws.
slide42

Electoral College

Group of electors from every state who meet every four years to vote for the President of the United States.

slide44

Appeal

  • To ask that a decision be reviewed by a higher court.
slide45

Unconstitutional

  • Not allowed under the Constitution
slide46

Veto

  • To reject, as when the President rejects a law passed by Congress.

Vetoed

slide47

Override

  • To overrule, as when congress overrules a presidential veto.

To override a presidential veto, Congress needs to thirds of the members in both the House of Representatives and Senate to vote yes to overriding veto.

slide48

Impeach

  • To bring charges of serious wrongdoing against a public official.
slide49

First Amendment

  • Amendment to the United States Constitution that safeguards basic individual liberties including freedom of religion, speech, and the press.
slide50

Second Amendment

  • Amendment to the United States Constitution related to the right to bear arms.
slide51

Citizen

  • Person who owes loyalty to a particular nation and is entitled to all its rights and protection.
slide52

Immigrant

  • A person who enters another country in order to settle.
slide53

Patriotism

  • Feeling of love and devotion toward one’s country.
slide55

Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation was the first American Constitution, which created a loose alliance of 13 independent states in 1777.

slide56

Structure of government

  • There was only one branch of government under the Articles of Confederation, the legislative branch.
  • This branch of government could make the laws, but nine of 13 states had to approve the law.
  • There was no executive branch or judicial branch.
slide58

Achievements

  • There were two major accomplishments by Congress under the Articles of Confederation.
  • Two pieces of legislation were made by Congress dealing with the Northwest Territory.
  • These laws were called the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.
slide59

Land Ordinance of 1785

The Land Ordinance of 1785 was a law for settling the Northwest Territory.

slide60

Northwest Ordinance

  • The Northwest Ordinance was a 1787 law that set up a government for the Northwest Territory.
  • It guaranteed basic rights to settlers and outlawed slavery in the northwest territory.
slide61

Weaknesses

The Articles of Confederation had numerous problems.

They were:

  • Weak central government
  • Congress could not force states to pay taxes.
  • No Supreme Court to solve problems between the states.
  • Congress could not regulate trade between states
slide62

Shay's Rebellion

  • Shay’s Rebellion was a 1786 rebellion led by a farmer named Daniel Shay who lost his farm in Massachusetts.
  • He along with other farmers who lost their farm because of high taxes rebelled.
  • They burned government building throughout Massachusetts.
  • Eventually the state militia was called out to put the Rebellion.
slide63

Shay's Rebellion

  • Shay’s Rebellion showed that the federal government was not powerful enough to deal with major uprising.
  • In 1787, leaders from every state met in Philadelphia to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • They decided to create a new constitution instead.
  • This meeting became known as the Constitutional Convention and they created the United States Constitution.
  • The constitution that is the basis of our current government.
slide64

The Constitutional

Convention

Compromises

At

Convention

Delegates

Definition

Location

Federalist

And

Antifederalists

Federalist

Papers

slide65

Constitutional Convention

  • The Constitutional Convention was a meeting of state representatives on May 25, 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation.
  • The meeting took place at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania .
  • Instead of revising the Articles of Confederation, the delegates wrote a new constitution.
slide66

Location

The Constitutional Convention took place at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania in Independence Hall.

slide67

Compromises at Convention

  • To create a new constitution, the delegates at the convention had to solve many problems by coming up with compromises.
  • To the right are several compromises from the convention.
slide68

The Great Compromise

  • Two plans were created that set the structure of the new government.
  • These two plans were called the New Jersey Plan and the Virginia Plan.
  • To understand the Great Compromise we have to understand these two plans.

+

=

The Great Compromise

slide69

The Virginia Plan

  • This plan was created by James Madison and was favored by large states.
  • The plan called for three branches of government: executive, legislative and judicial branch.
  • In the legislative branch, there would be two houses.
  • Representation for each state would be based on population.
  • That means that larger states would have more representatives in both houses.
  • Small states did not like that.
slide70

The New Jersey Plan

  • William Patterson came up with the New Jersey.
  • This plan was favored by small states.
  • Like the Virginia Plan, it created a government with three branches of government. However, in the legislative branch, would have just one house and representation would be the same for every state-only one representative per state.
slide71

Virginia

New Jersey

The Great Compromise

  • The Great Compromise solved the debate over representation in the new legislative branch.
  • Roger Sherman of Connecticut came up with the plan.
  • He merged the two plans (New Jersey plan and Virginia Plan) together.
  • Their would be three branches of government and in the legislative branch there would be two houses.
slide72

The Great Compromise

  • The two houses created were called the Senate and the House of Representatives.
  • In the Senate there would be only two representatives called Senators. Every state regardless of population would only have two senators. This kept the small states happy.
  • In the House of Representatives, representation would be determined by population. The larger the population a state has, the more representatives the state would have. This kept the large states happy.

+

New Jersey

Virginia

slide73

The Three-Fifths Compromise

  • After the representation issue in the House of Representatives with the Great Compromise, a new problem arose.
  • The problem was slavery and southern states wanted to count slaves towards there states population. That would mean southern states would have more representatives in the House of Representatives.
slide74

The Three-Fifths Compromise

  • A compromise was reached in which some slaves would be counted.
  • It was called the Three-fifths compromise because three-fifths of the slaves in a state would be counted towards a states representation in the House of Representatives.
slide75

The Election Compromise

  • The Election compromise was a compromise the president of the United States would be elected.
  • They created the electoral college system to elect the president.
slide76

Electoral College

Group of electors from every state who meet every four years to vote for the President of the United States.

slide77

The Election Compromise

  • The Election compromise was a compromise the president of the United States would be elected.
  • They created the electoral college system to elect the president.
slide78

Federalists

  • The Federalists were people who supported the new constitution created at the Constitutional Convention.
  • They favored a strong central government.
slide79

Antifederalists

  • Antifederalists were people against the new constitution created at the Constitutional Convention.
  • They liked stronger state governments and a weak central government.
  • They did not want the Articles of Confederation replaced.
slide80

The Federalists Papers

  • The Federalist papers were a series of essays by Federalists James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay in support of ratifying the Constitution.
  • These essays were published in newspapers around the country to explain the advantages of the new constitution.

James Madison

slide81

Preamble and Goals of Constitution

The Preamble is the introduction to the Constitution.

“We the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defense, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessing of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution of the United States of America.

In this opening statement, the goals of the Constitution are listed. Click the underlined goal to learn more about each.

slide82

In order to form

a more perfect Union

To unite the states into one united country.

slide83

Establish Justice

To create a government and justice system that treats everyone fairly and equally

slide84

Ensure Domestic

Tranquillity

To have the power to keep the peace at home and to have to handle emergency situations .

slide85

Provide for a Common

Defense

To protect our interests over seas and at home by having a well kept military force.

slide86

Promote the General Welfare

  • To look out for the well being of all citizens.
slide87

Article I: The Legislative

Branch

  • Article one of the Constitution creates the legislative branch as a bicameral legislature.
  • The Main job of the Legislative Branch is to make laws.
  • Bicameral means two houses.
  • The two houses that make the legislative branch are the Senate and the House of Representatives
slide88

Senate

  • The Senate consists of 100 members, 2 from every state.
  • Senators are elected for 6 year terms.
  • The minimum age to be a senator is 30.
slide89

House of Representatives

  • There are 435 members of the House of Representatives.
  • Membership is determined by population.
  • Each Congressman is elected for 2 years.
  • The minimum age to be a congressman is 25.
slide90

Article II: Executive Branch

  • Article II of the Constitution establishes the executive branch with the President and Vice President.
  • The main job of the executive branch is to enforce the laws passed by Congress.
  • The president is can only serve for 2, 4 year terms.
  • The minimum age to be president is 35. You must also be a natural born citizen to become president.
slide91

Cabinet

  • The president’s cabinet are his advisor.
  • There are 16 cabinet positions.
  • These advisors are called secretaries.
  • These secretaries head departments.
slide92

Cabinet

Below is a list of some of the Departments:

Department of Justice

Department of Home Land Security

Department of Defense

Department the Interior

Department of Transportation

Department of Education

slide93

Article III: The Judicial Branch

  • Article III of the Constitution establishes the judicial branch which includes the Supreme Court and lower courts.
  • The Supreme Court is the highest court in the land.
  • It is the final court of appeals.
  • The Supreme Court does not hear criminal cases.
  • The Supreme Court hears cases involving: the constitution, settling disputes between states or individual between states.
slide94

Supreme Court Justices

  • There are nine Supreme Court Justices
  • They are elected for life terms.
slide95

Articles IV-VII

  • Article IV
  • Article V
  • Article VI
  • Article VII
slide96

Article IV

Article four declares equality among the states, extradition, admissions of new states, Congress’s authority over territories, republican forms of government in each state.

slide97

Article V

  • Establishes procedure for amending the Constitution.
  • There are two ways to propose and ratify an amendment to the Constitution.
slide99

Article VI

  • Declares the Constitution the Supreme law of the land.
slide100

Article VII

  • Establishes procedure for the 13 states to ratify the new Constitution.
slide101

Bill of Rights

  • The Bill of Rights were added in 1791 to guarantee the protection of citizens basic rights.
  • The Bill of Rights are the first 10 amendments to the Constitution.
slide102

Bill of Rights

Bill of Rights:

  • First Amendment
  • Second Amendment
  • Third Amendment
  • Fourth Amendment
  • Fifth Amendment

6. Sixth Amendment

7. Seventh Amendment

  • Eighth Amendment
  • Ninth Amendment
  • Tenth Amendment
slide103

1st Amendment

  • Freedom of speech, press, assembly, free exercise of religion.
slide104

2nd Amendment

  • Right to bear arms
slide105

3rd Amendment

  • Forbids government from quartering of troops in peacetime.
slide106

4th Amendment

  • Protects against unwarranted search.
slide107

5th Amendment

  • Protects rights of accused to due process.
slide108

6th Amendment

  • Protects rights to fair trial and counsel.
slide109

7th Amendment

  • Right of jury trial in civil cases
slide110

8th Amendment

  • Protects against cruel punishment and excessive bail.
slide111

9th Amendment

Rights not specifically mentioned still exist.

slide112

10th Amendment

  • Powers not specified in Constitution are left to states and the people.

This amendment is an additional protection of individual and state rights.

slide113

Principles of the Constitution

  • When they created the Constitution, the founders incorporated 6 principle, or rules, that would strengthen the government, but also limit it’s power.

The six principles are:

1. Limited Government

2. Federalism

3. Representative Government

4. Separation of Power

5. Checks and Balances

6. Provision for Change

slide114

Limited Government

  • The Constitution of the United States specifically lists what the national government can do and cannot do.
slide115

Federalism

  • This principle divides power between the central government and the state governments.
slide116

Representative Government

  • This principle in the Constitution allows the people to elect the people who make decisions.
slide117

Separation of Power

  • Divides power between three branches of government.
  • Each branch can only do certain things, thus limiting the amount of power each branch has.
slide118

Checks and Balances

  • This principle allows each branch to have specific powers to limit the power of the other two branches.
slide119

Provision for Change

  • The Constitution of the United States allows it to be changed through the amendment process.
slide120

Ideas used in Constitution

The delegates at the Constitutional Convention, used ideas from civilizations of the past as well as ideas from several enlightenment thinkers. Below are a few of the individuals and societies, that founders used as models when creating the Constitution.

  • John Locke’s unalienable rights and limited government
  • Baron de Montesquie’s Separation of Power and checks and balances
  • Roman Republic
slide121

Baron de Montesquiea

  • Several ideas of Montesquiea were used
  • They were separation of power and checks and balances.
slide122

Roman Republic

  • From the Romans, the delegates got the idea of a republican form of government.
  • A republican form of government is a government in which representatives make decisions for the citizens.
slide123

John Locke

  • John Locke’s idea of natural rights and limited government were used not only in the declaration of Independence, but the Constitution.
  • John Locke believed everyone had certain unalienable rights and they were: life, liberty and property.
  • He also believed that government should have limits on their power that power originates from the people governed.
slide124

Delegates

  • There were 55 delegates from each of the 13 states at the convention except for Rhode Island. These delegates were some of the most respective and bright minds in the country.
  • Below are three of the most distinguished delegates present at the convention.
slide125

George Washington

  • George Washington was elected president of the Constitutional Convention.
slide126

Benjamin Franklin

  • Benjamin Franklin was the oldest of the Delegates at the age of 81.
  • He came up with many ideas used in the Constitution and used his sense of humor to diffuse some heated debates.
slide127

James Madison

  • James Madison came up with the Virginia Plan and took notes of the proceedings at the Convention.
  • It is because of his notes that we know what took place at the closed door convention.
  • He is known as the Father of the Constitution because of his input into its creation.
slide128

Secure the Blessing of Liberty

To give all people freedom