Speech Science Speech production I – Breathing
Topics • Energy for speech • The physical structures • Controlling breathing in speech • Homework: a) Kent, Chap. 4, pp. 71-100 • b) Borden, Harris & Raphael, Chap. 4, pp. 59-72/70-83 • Deutsch: c) Pompino-Marschall, Teil II, pp. 20-30 • Übung 3 (hand in by 19th Nov): See question sheet.
Breathing: Energy for speech • The airstream provides kinetic energy which is transformed into acoustic energy for speech • The normal airstream for speech is produced by breathing outwards (called an egressive pulmonic airstream) • There are several other (egressive and ingressive) airstream mechanisms which are used for speech (in “more exotic” languages) • The transformation of the kinetic energy into the acoustic energy needed for speech comes later – first things first!
High to low pressure = airstream • Like the wind in our weather systems, Our breath moves from high- to low-pressure regions • To breath in, we reduce the pressure in our lungs, and the air flows in (if we open our mouth!); to breath out we increase the lung pressure. • We do this by lowering or raising our diaphragm and by raising and lowering our rib-cage. • This increases or reduces the volume of our lungs, which reduces or increases the pressure in them (QED!)
The physical structures 2 Seen from front Seen from back
Seen from back Seen from front The physical structures 3
The physical structures 5 Balance of forces Lungs and thorax together Thorax alone Lungs alone
Breathing control … … is different for speech thanfor living. Breathing out is carefully controlled (and takes longer) More air is breathed in (andout) than in normal, relaxedbreathing
Breathing control for speech I The loudness of an utterance increases with increased airflow Changing airflow (volume-velocity) is the result of changingpressure within the lungs. We control loudness in speech;therefore we modify the pressure and flow – it is different from normal “breathing to live“.
Breathing control for speech II After breathing in, the relaxation pressure is too high for the required loudness Inspiratory effort isnecessary to reduce the excess pressure.
Breathing control for speech III Different loudnesses require differentlung pressures This means thatfor louder speechless time is neededto counteract theexcess relaxationpressure
Breathing control for speech IV EMG data show that muscles ofinspiration are used to workagainst the excess relaxationpressure… … and that active expirationtakes over when relaxationpressure = required pressure Inspirationmuscles Expirationmuscles
Non-pulmonic air-stream mechanisms We mentioned other air-stream mechanisms for speech than egressive pulmonic air. They are: • The egressive glottalic air-stream (for producing “ejective“ sounds) • The ingressive glottalic air-stream (for producing “implosive“ sounds) • The ingressive velaric air-stream (for producing “click“ sounds