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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness Statewide Training - Kindergarten July 22, 2008 & July 29, 2008 Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness local food systems ,

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eating healthy from farm to fork promoting school wellness

Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Statewide Training - Kindergarten

July 22, 2008 & July 29, 2008

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • local food systems,
  • garden-based learning,
  • school food service, and
  • establishment of healthy nutrition habits.

Nutrition education curriculum that makes the connection between:

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Comprehensive materials
  • Integrate nutrition education into age-appropriate, grade-based lessons
  • Designed around 2008 Nutrition Competencies (draft)
  • Correlated to core CA subject standards
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Experiential and hands-on
  • Actively engage the learner
  • Healthy choices for food and fitness
  • Support positive school-wellness environment
  • Recognize the relationship between health & nutrition and academic achievement
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Goal

Children will make healthy food and exercise choices by developing positive attitudes towards foods and fitness.

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Children will:

  • Expand their consumption of fruits, vegetables and grains.
  • Expand the variety of their diets.
  • Recognize MyPyramid and identify it as a guide to healthy eating and exercise.
  • Increase their understanding of the food continuum from farm production to consumption.

Objectives

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

What is the Farm to School Movement?

It started in the mid-1980’s to enhance school health & nutrition and improve the viability of local farms.

Brought together schools and local farmers to:

  • Help children enjoy more fresh fruits & vegetables while learning about where food comes from, and
  • Help farmers become more economically viable.
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Four Areas of Influence

  • Local farms
  • School gardens
  • School cafeterias & food service
  • Children’s health & nutrition

Farm to School Movement

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Much prior work in this area

  • School garden Projects & Garden in Every School efforts
  • Work on improving school meals
  • Other nutrition education work in the schools

Few programs addressed the 4 areas of influence

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Need for a curriculum that connected the four areas of influence
  • Presented in the context of learning about the food system (farms)
  • Doing applied and hands-on environmental activities (garden)
  • Educational environment for experiencing food (cafeteria)
  • Nutrition education based on 2005 Dietary Guidelines and MyPyramid (nutrition)

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Loss of connection to farms…less than 2% of U.S. population is involved in farming
  • Little understanding of where food comes from and how it is grown
  • Better interaction between local consumers and local farmers increases awareness of local food options & enhances commitment to healthy, sustainable, and secure food products and practices (Cohen, et al, 2004)

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

…Farms

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Many benefits to hands-on gardening activities
  • Childhood experiences influence environmental ethics & action (Glazer & Glazer, 1998).
  • Gardening enhances children’s community involvement & life satisfaction (Blair, Giesecke, & Sherman, 1991).
  • Increases self-esteem, a sense of ownership and responsibility (Alexander & Hendren, 1998).
  • Improved academics, higher test scores, higher levels of critical thinking when involved in garden-based learning (Lieberman & Hoody, 1998; Smith, 2002).
  • Greater willingness to taste and eat vegetables when nutrition ed was combined with gardening (Morris, Neustadter & Zidenberg-Cherr, 2000; Linebeger & Zajicek, 2000; Blari, Giesecke, & Sherman, 1991).

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

…Gardens

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

…Cafeteria

  • Increasing fruit & vegetable consumption requires more than school-based nutrition education
  • Requires comprehensive intervention directed towards the entire school (Domel, et al, 1993)
  • Students who have repeated opportunities to taste foods that are low in fat, sodium, and added sugars and high in vitamins, minerals and fiber show improved nutrition
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Rational and Research for the Curriculum

…Nutrition

  • Cognitive-focused nutrition education typically results in gains of knowledge but little effect on behavior (Bagby, Zeller & Jacobson, 1987; Campbell & Achterberg, 1993; Contento, Kell, Keily & Corcoran, 1992; Weis & Kein, 1987).
  • Should focus on concrete experiences, exposure to healthy foods, and skills in making food choices (Steinschneider & Coyne, 1995).
  • Behavior change is more likely when it is fun & participatory, rather than lectures (Contento, 1981; Reinicow & Reinhardt, 1991; Bush et al, 1989).
  • Incorporating nutrition concepts into other subject areas (math science, language arts, social studies) has been effective (Lytle, Kelder, Perry & Klepp, 1995; Steinschneider & Coyne, 1995).
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Parents have the strongest influence on their children’s eating patterns.
  • More nutrition information communicated by parents the more knowledgeable the children (Anliker, et al, 1990).
  • Involving parents in school nutrition education programs enhances both the parent and child’s learning behaviors (Smith, McCormick, Steckler & McLeroy, 1993).
  • Parents are more receptive to activities that can be done at home (Crockett, Mullis & Perry, 1998; Hearn, Bigelow & Nader, 1992).

Rational and Research for the Curriculum …Parent Involvement

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

What is School Wellness?

Passed in 2004, and implemented in 2006-07 schools participating federal food programs:

  • Include goals for nutrition ed, physical activity, & other activities that are designed to promote school wellness in a manner that the local agency determines is appropriate.
  • Include nutrition guidelines selected by local agency for all foods available on school campus during school day with the objectives of promoting student health and reducing childhood obesity.
  • Provide an assurance that guidelines for reimbursable school meals shall not be less restrictive than relations and guidance issued by the Secretary of Ag.
  • Establish a plan for measuring implementation of the local wellness policy.
  • Involve parents, students, representatives of the school food authority, school board, school administrators, and the public.
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Nutrition Competencies

Developed in 2005, support the Health Framework

(I.) Know and understand the relationship between the human body and nutrition.

(II.) Know current nutrition recommendations and how to apply them.

(III.) Identify and explore factors influencing food choices.

(IV.) Identify foods that come from particular regions and understand the factors (local, regional, statewide, national, global) that influence food availability, production and consumption.

(V.) Demonstrate proper food handling and storage to maximize the nutritional quality of food and personal hygiene to prevent foodborne illness.

(VI.) Identify valid nutrition information, and advocate for policy.

(VII.) Identify the variety of food-related careers.

http://nutrition/ucdavis.edu/inutrition.html

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

California Content Standards

  • California State Board of Education has adopted standards-based approach to content delivery
  • Explicitly state the content students need to acquire at each grade level
  • Standards cover: English & Language Arts, History & Social Studies, Science, Mathematics
  • Lessons & Making Connections activities where specifically developed for the standards
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Eating Healthy From Farm to Forkuses a consistent easy to use format that provides all the information needed to successfully implement the curriculum in a classroom, as well as informal educational settings.

Each Lesson Includes:

Lesson Introduction – A brief overview of the lesson content and activities.

Objectives – Each lesson has three to five specific learner objectives that support the overall objectives of the curriculum and specific concepts of the lesson.

Nutrition Competencies – Each lesson is specifically developed to achieve stated nutrition competencies.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Background Information – Two pages of background information are provided for the educator. This information should be read prior to teaching the activities. Educators will find that the information gives more detailed nutrition information, as well as background on related agriculture and gardening information.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

California Agricultural Facts – Quick facts on the lesson’s agricultural focus are included in the right sidebar.

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Activities – Each lesson includes two activities that teach the stated objectives. Although one lesson usually focuses more directly on nutrition, the other includes more garden or farm connections. Both activities should be taught and preferable in the order presented.

Supply List – All of the supplies, equipment, and materials needed to teach the lesson are listed in the left sidebar.

Prep List – A summary of needed advanced preparation is contained in the left side bar.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

California Content Standards – The right activity page sidebar lists how the activities are correlated to the state content standards for English/language arts, mathematics, science, and history and social studies for the specific grade level.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

Making the Connection – Two pages highlight lesson connections to farm, garden, cafeteria, and nutrition. These are easy to implement ideas that extend the lesson content and reinforce the important linkages between food and food production, food preparation, and food and fitness choices.

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Recipe Activity – Nutrition education is greatly enhanced when children can prepare and taste the food they are studying. Each lesson includes a lesson specific recipe that is easy to prepare in the classroom setting.

Review the Lesson – Each of the lesson objectives are reviewed through a question and answer format. If children are unable to successfully answer these questions, the lesson activities should be reviewed and reinforced.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

Knowledge Quiz – Lesson objectives are also reviewed through a printed knowledge quiz that uses a picture-format. This can be administered individually or to the group at large. It can be printed or reproduced as a transparency.

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

Parent Letter - Parents’ involvement in their children nutrition education is critical to making behavioral changes. A lesson-specific letter, available in English and Spanish, highlights what was studied in the classroom. The letter emphasizes simple things that parents can do to reinforce the learning at home. It is suggested that the recipe also be sent home with the letter.

How the Curriculum Is Organized

Handouts and Support Materials – Although handouts have been kept to a minimum, when used, they can be found at the end of the lesson. Teaching materials are also included at the end of the lesson.

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Classroom, day camp, afterschool , and 4-h project settings
  • Intentionally uses manipulatives and hands-on activities and other supports
  • Lessons can be presented in one day or over a range of days
  • Each activity within a lesson takes 30-45 minutes
  • Present in the order presented as they are designed to build on each other
  • Implement the Making Connection activities to further link the lessons to farm, garden, cafeteria and nutrition

How to Present the Curriculum

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Gardening experiences can be done in the garden or in container gardens
  • At least one activity in the lessons is garden or farm related
  • Partners with school food service to enhances quality of meals and nutrition education
  • Can also include a cafeteria composting component

How to Present the Curriculum

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Tables will be assigned to a starting station
  • Participants will rotate from station to station, when they hear the cow bell
  • Take your book and bag to gather materials at each of the stations
  • Spend 10 minutes at each station
  • When you hear the cow bell, quickly move to the next station and stay with your group to assure that you will hear and receive all of the information
  • Each presenter will highlight the lesson, do parts of one of the activities and give some take-away information

Exploring Kindergarten the Curriculum

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Lesson 1 Essentials for Healthy Eating & Gardening

Activity 2, Helping Plants Grow

  • Lesson 2 Food & Garden Safety

Activity 2, Stop and Think

  • Lesson 3 Getting Ready to Cook & Garden

Activity 1, Garden & Kitchen Tool

  • Lesson 4 Food & Garden Discovery - Grains

Activity 2, From Seed to Table

  • Lesson 5 Food & Garden Discovery – Vegetables

Activity 2, Senses

Exploring the Lessons

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Lesson 6 Food & Garden Discovery - Fruit

Activity 1, Our Favorite Fruits

  • Lesson 7 Food & Garden Discovery - Milk

Activity 2, The Milk Makers

  • Lesson 8 Food & Garden Discovery - Meat & Beans

Activity 1, Plant or Animal

  • Lesson 9 Get Moving at School & in the Garden

Activity 1, Choose Your Move

  • Lesson 10 Food & Garden Choices & Diversity

Activity 2, Salad Bowl Scramble

Exploring the Lessons

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Questions
  • Discussion
  • Availability and use
  • Evaluation
  • Participation in grade 1 and 2 development
  • Door Prizes

Review ofEating Healthy From Farm to Fork…

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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

  • Bagby, R., Campbell, V.S., and Achterberg, C. (1993). Every day, lots of ways: an interdisciplinary nutrition curriculum for kindergarten-sixth grade. Harrisburg, PA: Pennsylvania State Department of Education.
  • Blair, D., Giesecke, C.C., and Sherman, S. (1991). Dietary, social and economic evaluation of the Philadelphis Urban Gardening Project. Journal of Nutrition Education (23),161-167.
  • Bush, P. J., Zuckerman, A.E., Taggart, V.S., Theiss, P.K., Peleg, E.O., and Smith, S.A. (1989). Cardiovascular risk factor prevention in black school children: the know your body evaluation project. Health Education Quarterly 16(2), 215-27.
  • Canaris, I. (1995). Growing foods for growing minds: integrating gardening and nutrition education into the total curriculum. Children's Environments, 12(2), 264-270.
  • Contento, I., Balch, G.I., and Bronner, Y.L. (1995). Inservice preparation in nutrition education for professionals and paraprofessionals. Journal of Nutrition Education, 27(6),347-54.
  • Contento, I.R., Kell, D.G., Keiley, M.K., and Corcoran, R.D. (1992). A formative evaluation of the American Cancer Society Changing the Course nutrition education curriculum. Jouranla of School Health, 62 (9), 411-6.
  • Domel, S., Baranowski, T., Davis, H., Leonard, S., Riley, P., and Baranowski, J. (1993). Measuring fruit and vegetable preferences among 4th and 5th grade students. Preventive Medicine 22, 866-879.
  • General, S. (2001). Overweight and Obesity Fact Sheet: Overweight in Children and Adolescents. Retrieved 5/16/2003, 2001, from

http://www.surgeongeneral.gov/topics/obesity/calltoaction/fact_adolescents.htm

References

  • Lieberman, G. A. and Hoody, L. (1998). Closing the achievement gap. Using the environment as an integrated context for learning. San Diego: State Education and Environment Roundtable.
  • Lytle, L.A., Kelder, S.H., Perry, C.L., and Klepp, K. I. (1995). Covariance of adolescent health behaviors: the Class of 1989 Study. Health Education Resources, 10(2), 133-46.
  • Lineberger, S. E. and Zajicek, J. M. (2000). School Gardens: Can a Hands-on Teaching tool Affect Students' Attitudes and Behaviors Regarding Fruit and Vegetables? Hort Technology, 10(3), 593-597.
  • Morris, J. L. and Zidenberg-Cherr, S. (2002). Garden-enhanced nutrition curriculum improves fourth-grade children's knowledge of nutrition and preferences for some vegetables. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(1), 91-93.
  • Skelly, S. M. and Zajiceck, J. M. (1998). The effect of an interdisciplinary garden program in the environmental attitudes of elementary school students. Hort Technology, 8(4), 579-583.
  • Resnicow, K., Cohn, L., and Reinhardt, J. (1991). A three-year evaluation of the Know Your Body Program in inner-city schoolchildren. Health Education Quarterly, 19(4), 463-80.
  • Steinschneider, J. and Coyne, A.H. (1995). Bringing WIC to school. Washington, DC: Center on Budget and Policy Priorities.
  • Weiss, E.H. and Kein, C.L. (1987). A synthesis of research on nutrition education at the elementary school level. Journal of School Health, 57(1),8-13.
  • Zeller, P.K, and Jacobson, M.F. (1987). Eat, think, and be healthy! Creative nutrition activities for children. Washington, DC: Center for Science in the Public Interest.
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Eating Healthy from Farm to Fork … Promoting School Wellness

AUTHOR:

Sharon K. Junge, 4-H Youth Development and Nutrition Family Consumer Science Advisor

CONTRIBUTORS:

Karrie Heneman, Nutrition Department, UC Davis; Rosemary Carter and Amy Netemeyer, UCCE Youth FSNEP Program Representatives

LAYOUT AND DESIGN:

Frank Garrels, Annette Cosgrove and Victoria Hoffman, Administrative Assistants

TRANSLATION:

Isela Valdez, UCCE 4-H Youth Development Advisor

Acknowledgments