Alabama Extended Standards, Kindergarten - Grade 6 DaLee Chambers, Ph.D. Alabama Department of Education July, 2011
Reproductions of the slides and/or information from the slides in this PowerPoint related to Alabama Extended Standards, Kindergarten - Grade 6should be credited to: Alabama Department of Education, Special Education Services P.O. Box 302101 Montgomery, AL 36130 firstname.lastname@example.org 334.242.8114
Students learn when the teacher knows… “What a teacher knows and does influences what a student learns” Teachers’ content knowledge determines not only what a teacher teaches, but also how. National Staff Development Council, www.nsdc.org
Q&A: Extended Standards • www.alsde.edu • Click on Sections • Click on Special Education • Click on Standards • Select “Q&A - Alabama Extended Standards.pdf”
Alabama Alternate Assessment • Reading: Grades 3-8, 11 • Mathematics: Grades 3-8, 11 • Science: Grades 5, 7, 11
Alabama Alternate Assessment • Alignment determined. • Complexity — Points awarded based on the complexity of the extended standard • Level of Support — Points awarded based on the level of assistance (Independently, with Prompting, with Support) • Content Mastery— • 0 points for 0-24% mastery • 1 point for 25-49% mastery • 2 points for 50-74% mastery • 3 points for 75-100% mastery Assessment and Accountability, ALSDE, Regional Workshops, Fall 2007
Level of Support • Independently-the student performs the task without prompting or support. The cognition of the task is performed entirely by the student. • Prompting-the student is provided cues by the teacher or aide (oral cues, repeat or additional directions, and/or gestures that initiate or sustain a task). The cognition of the task is performed entirely by the student. • Support-the student receives direct instruction to achieve the skill. The cognition of the task is not performed by the student alone; however, the task is not completed by the teacher. This assistance is more than prompting. Assessment and Accountability, ALSDE, Alabama Alternate Assessment Making a Connection Workshop Handout, Fall 2009
Types of Evidence • Written Performance Summary • Worksheet/Teacher Test • Work Sample • Photograph(s) (with captions/written summary) • Audio (5 minutes or less with word for word transcript) • Video (5 minutes or less with word for word transcript)
Written Performance Summary Explain exactly what occurred: • What books? • What problems? • What materials/computer programs/games? • What questions?
Written Performance Summary Describe exactly what happened: • Expectations for success. • What the teacher said/did. • What the student said/did. • Which student responses/actions were correct. • Which student responses/actions were incorrect.
Worksheet/Teacher Test Ten (10) items of related content are required. • Less than 10 items, invalid • 10 items, but some items do not match content → unrelated items count against the content mastery score (e.g., 10 items, but 4 are unrelated, 60% content mastery is most student can earn).
Work Sample • Original student projects • Student’s written work on a blank sheet of paper, or something that has been manipulated (e.g., cut, pasted)
AAA Minimum Evidence • www.alsde.edu • Click on Sections • Click on Assessment and Accountability • Click on Publications • Scroll over and select AAA Information • “AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard Reading Grades 3-8 and 11.pdf” • “AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard Mathematics Grades 3-8 and 11.pdf” • “AAA Minimum Evidence Per Extended Standard Science Grades 5 7 and 11.pdf”
AAA Minimum Evidence R. ES 3.2 (3) 3 pieces of evidence with at least 2 different blends per piece of evidence.
AAA Minimum Evidence M. ES 3.2 (3) 3 pieces of evidence with at least 10 different addition and 10 different subtraction problems across the pieces of evidence.
“Mimic” • If the extended standard says “mimic,” the teacher must give the student something to mimic.
“Participate “ • Teacher defines and describes participation. • Answering correctly is not necessary… involvement in the specified activity is what is required.
Expectations for Success • Be clear and specific. • Do not include trials! Evidence should only include however many times are necessary to meet minimum evidence. No! 7.1(1) When given a choice of 4 books, student will correctly associate 3 certain characters with their stories, by pointing to the correct book, during 2/3 trials. Yes! ???
Avoid Questionable Tactics Examples: • Student is supposed to identify main character: main character is the one word story title in all pieces of evidence. • Correct answer is always in same location (e.g., 10 multiple choice questions with correct answer always on left). • Performance Summaries across multiple students with the same wording, same exact student responses, etc.
Reading Materials • Passage or story must consist of at least three (3) sentences. • Different stories are required across the three pieces of evidence. Give the name of the story used each time so the scorer can verify a different story was used.
Reading Materials • Complexity 3 & 4 • Student must read the passage or story independently • Complexity 2 & in some cases Complexity 1 • Student can read with assistance, or the teacher can read the passage or story
Hi Lo Books for Reluctant Readers • High Interest • Low Vocabulary http://childrensbooks.about.com/od/toppi cks/tp/hi_lo_books.htm
Phoneme The smallest unit of sound in a spoken word. • An example of a phoneme is the /k/ sound in the words kite and car. K.1
TrackWords As They Are Read • Students must be taught print concepts, including following words from left to right and from top to bottom on the printed page. K.2
Print Concepts • Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book. • Follow words from left to right and from top to bottom on the printed page. • Understand that printed materials provide information. • Recognize that sentences in print are made up of separate words. K.2
Identify Letters • Flash cards (homemade or store bought) • Foam or wooden letter blocks • Learning videos • Books • ABC song • Leap Frog Fridge PhonicsRepetition is Key!! K.3
Real Life Objects & Actions Which picture represents the word “crying”? K.4
Initial Letter Sound The sound at the beginning of a word. • Instructional Suggestion: Show pictures of book, dog, hand, and fox. This is book, dog, hand, and fox. Which picture begins with /b/? 1.1
Match Sounds and Letters • Phoneme: a phoneme is the most basic unit of sound. • Grapheme: a grapheme is the written representation of a phoneme. A grapheme can consist of one, two, and rarely three or four letters. The sound /k/ can be represented by the letters C, K, or CK as in cat, kite, and duck. 1.2
Match Sounds and Letters Instructional Suggestions: • Take egg cartons and put a paper letter in each slot. Say letter-sounds and ask students to pick out the letters that match those sounds http://www.readingrockets.org/article/160 1.2
Sort Picture Cards into Given Categories Categorizing involves grouping objects or ideas according to criteria that describe common features or the relationships among all members of that group. This procedure enables students to see patterns and connections and it develops students' abilities to manage or organize information. 1.3
Teaching Categories • Focus on concrete objects • Provide the criteria by which objects are to be grouped such as size, color, shape or use • Encourage students to explain their reasons for placing items in particular categories • Ensure that all students see and understand the relationships • Encourage students to question each other's categorizations 1.3
Teaching Categories Procedure continued • Provide opportunities for students to categorize their objects according to criteria of their choosing • Demonstrate this strategy with the whole class, then progress to small group and individual categorizing activities • Move students from categorizing concrete objects to categorizing pictures http://www.sasked.gov.sk.ca/docs/kindergarten/kindapp.html 1.3
Who, What, and Where Questions • The answers to questions such as “who”, “what” and “where” are parts of story structure. By identifying these basic structures it will help a student be able to recall or retell a story. 1.4
Who, What, and Where Questions http://www.englishclub.com/vocabulary/wh-question-words.htm 1.4
High Frequency Words A word that appears many more times than most other words in spoken or written language. • Many of these words such as the, is, to, and are do not follow commonly taught phonics rules and cannot be sounded out. http://www.reading-tutors.com/tips/TH_Tips_HFW.pdf • Dolch • Fry’s 300 1.5 2.5
Initial Sound / Final Sound Initial The first sound you hear in the beginning of a word. Final The last sound you hear at the end of a word. Example: boat • Initial sound /b/ • Final sound /t/ 2.1
Isolate The ability to recognize individual sounds in a word. Example of initial isolation: • Teacher: What is the first sound in van? • Student: The first sound in van is /v/. Example of final isolation: • Teacher: What is the last sound in top? • Student: The last sound in top is /p/. 2.1
Consonant Sounds The word consonant is used to refer to a letter of an alphabet that denotes a consonant sound. Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X, Z, and usually W and Y: The letter Y stands for the consonant [j] in “yoke”, and for the vowel [ɪ] in “myth” Y also commonly makes the long i and e sounds W is almost always a consonant except in rare words. 2.2
Vowel Sounds • Some Generalizations about English vowels • English vowels have "long" and "short" forms. • The long form is the "name" of the letter • The short form is as follows: 2.2
Real Life Objects & Actions What are they doing? 2.3
Real Life Objects & Actions What is this? Tell me what you do with this. 2.3
Events / Sequence • Sequencing is one of many skills that contributes to students' ability to comprehend what they read. Sequencing refers to the identification of the components of a story, such as the beginning, middle, and end, and also to the ability to retell the events within a given text in the order in which they occurred. http://www.teachervision.fen.com/skill-builder/reading-comprehension/48779.html 2.4
Blend (one-syllable words) • Blend: to draw individual sounds together to pronounce a word, • Example: c-a-p, blended together, reads cap 3.1
2 – 3 Letter Blends • When two or more letters appear together and you hear each sound that each consonant would normally make, the combination is called a blend. • For instance, the word blend has two consonant blends: bl, for which you hear the sounds for both b and l, and nd, for which you hear the sounds for both n and d. 3.2
READ (one-syllable words) • See sample list of one-syllable words. 3.3
Context Clues • The first step to learning how to use context clues is to understand what they are. The meaning of the phrase is easy: context are the words surrounding the particular word in question, and of course clues are supposed to help you figure out the “mystery” of the word in question. • The value of context clues lies in the ability to figure out the definition without using a dictionary. This is important especially for teachers who want to instill in their students a sense of independence in learning. http://www.helium.com/items/1833465-how-to-teach-children-to-use-context-clues-while-reading 3.4
Context Clues Different Kinds of Context Clues: • Definition • Synonym • Antonym • Example • Explanation http://www.suite101.com/content/context-clues-lesson-plan-a88326 3.4
Context Clues • The joey, which is a baby kangaroo, peeked out of his mother's pocket. (definition) • The beach was covered with debrislike paper and cans, and the children picked up all the trash. (synonym) • The ancientdress looked like new after she washed it. (antonym) http://www.suite101.com/content/context-clues-lesson-plan-a88326 3.4