Overview of Control System Design
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Economic Plant Operation. It is an economic reality that the plant operation over long periods of time must be profitable. Thus, the control objectives must be consistent with the economic objectives.
A Day in the Life of a
You are the Shift Supervisor:
What do you do?
Reaction of Sodium and Diglyme Solvent
New Test Cell
Burst Test Cell
Figure 10.1. Typical layers of protection in a modern chemical plant (CCPS 1993).
Basic process control system (BPCS) is augmented with two levels of alarms and operator supervision or intervention.
Type 1 Alarm: Equipment status alarm. Pump is on or off, or motor is running or stopped.
Type 2 Alarm: Abnormal measurement alarm. Measurement is outside of specified limits.
Type 3 Alarm: An alarm switch without its own sensor. When it is not necessary to know the actual value of the process variable, only whether it is above (or below) a specified limit.
Type 4 Alarm: An alarm switch with its own sensor. This serves as a backup in case the regular sensor fails.
Type 5 Alarm: Automatic Shutdown or Startup System.
As Rinard (1990) has poignantly noted, “The regulatory control system affects the size of your paycheck; the safety control system affects whether or not you will be around to collect it.”