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  1. Psychological Health Chapter Three

  2. Defining Psychological Health • Psychological Health (Mental Health) is a level of psychological well-being, or the absence of mental illness

  3. Defining Psychological (Mental) Health • You are not psychologically healthy because: • you are normal (average) • you conform to social norms • you never seek help for personal problems • appear to be OK

  4. Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs • Abraham Maslow (psychologist) believed that people are motivated to achieve certain needs; some needs are more important than others. • When one need is filled, people seek to fulfill the next need • To understand human motivation, Maslow studied individuals that he believed to be successful.

  5. Maslow Developed a Hierarchy of Needs

  6. Self-Actualization (A Closer Look) • Maslow concluded that visibly successful people achieved self-actualization, & that they share the following qualities: • Realism • Acceptance • Self-image • Self-esteem • Autonomy • Authenticity • Intimacy • Creativity

  7. Psychological Disorders

  8. Nerve Cell Communication

  9. The Nervous System and Psychiatric Disorders • A dysfunctional interaction between neurotransmitters and their receptors is thought to affect some psychiatric disorders. • Serotonin and norepinephrine alter the overall responsiveness of the brain and are responsible for mood, level of attentiveness and other psychological states. • Antidepressants work by targeting key neurotransmitters in the brain

  10. Psychological Disorders • Mood or Anxiety disorders • Usually the result of many factors • Genetic differences (we all process information differently) • Learning and life events • Anxiety • Fear that is not a response to any definite threat

  11. Anxiety Disorders • Simple Phobia • Persistent and excessive fear of a specific object, activity or situation • Social phobia • Fear of humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others

  12. Anxiety Disorders • Panic disorders • Sudden unexpected surges in anxiety • Rapid and strong heart beat • Shortness of breath • Loss of physical equilibrium • Feeling of losing mental control • Can lead to agoraphobia

  13. Anxiety Disorders • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) • Excessive worry about future events • Worries take over rational thought • Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) • Obsessions = recurrent, unwanted thoughts • Compulsions = repetitive, difficult-to-resist actions • Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) • Reaction to a severely traumatic event

  14. Mood Disorders • Depression • Most common mood disorder • Affects young and older adults • Takes the form of: • Feeling sad and hopeless • Loss of pleasure • Poor appetite, weight loss • Insomnia • Restlessness • Thoughts of worthlessness • Trouble concentrating • Thoughts of death or suicide

  15. Warning Signs of Suicide • Talk: expressing the ‘wish’ to be dead, saying they are a burden, or trapped • Behavior: Acting recklessly, social withdrawal/isolation, increased use of alcohol/drugs • Mood: Depression, rage, irritability, anxiety

  16. Facts About Suicide • Strongest risk factor for suicide is depression • In the US, suicide is the 3rd leading cause of death for young people ages 15-24 • Males take their own lives nearly 4X the rate of women • Firearms are the most common method of suicide by men. Poisoning is most common for women. • The rate of suicide is highest in middle aged white men. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline: 1-800-273-8255

  17. Mood Disorders • Mania and Bipolar Disorder • Restlessness • Having abundant energy • Requiring little sleep • Talking nonstop • Many people swing between manic and depressive states = bipolar disorder

  18. Treating Depression • Depends on severity and persons risk of suicide • Natural Methods • Diet, exercise, know how to manage stress • Antidepressants • Prescribed for Anxiety, PTSD, OCD, eating disorders, etc. • Prozac, paxil • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) • Last resort for severe depression • Mild seizure is produced • 3-4 treatments/wk. for ~ 4 wks.

  19. Treating Depression

  20. Psychological Disorders • Schizophrenia • General characteristics • Disorganized thoughts • Inappropriate emotions • Delusions • Auditory hallucinations • Deteriorating social and work function • Uncertain causes

  21. Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change • Several Perspectives can be applied to psychological disorders each with a distinct view of human nature

  22. Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change • Biological • Emphasis is on the influence of the brain • Therapy = Pharmacological • Behavioral • Emphasis on behavior/actions of people • Behaviorists analyze behavior in terms of stimulus, response and reinforcement • Exposure therapy

  23. Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change 3. Cognitive • Emphasis is on the effect of ideas on behaviors and feelings • This model states that behavior results from attitudes and expectations rather than reinforcements • Therapy tries to expose and identify false ideas that produce anxiety and depression