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Psychological Health

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  1. Psychological Health Chapter Three

  2. Psychological Health • What Psychological health is not.. • Not the same as psychological normality • Conforming to social norms • Never seeking help for personal problems • “Mentally ill” • Peoples appearance ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Defining Psychological Health • Negative definition • Positive definition • Abraham Maslow’s “Toward a Psychology of Being” • Hierarchy of needs • Studied very successful people (Self-actualization) • Abraham Lincoln, Henry David Thoreau, Ludwig van Beethoven, Eleanor Roosevelt, and Albert Einstein • Realism • Acceptance • Autonomy • Intimacy • Creativity ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  4. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  5. Meeting Life’s Challenges • Growing Up Psychologically • Adult identity • Intimacy • Values and Purpose ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  6. Erikson's Eight Stages of Personality Development(Table 3-1) • Trust versus mistrust • Autonomy versus shame and self-doubt • Initiative versus guilt • Industry versus inferiority • Identity versus identity confusion • Intimacy versus isolation • Generativity versus self-absorption • Integrity versus despair ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem • Developing a Positive Self-Concept • Begins in childhood • Integration • Stability • Meeting Challenges to Self-Esteem • Challenge is your self-concept • Acknowledge that something has gone wrong • Notice your patterns of thinking • Develop realistic self-talk • Being less defensive • Being optimistic ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  8. Achieving Healthy Self-Esteem (continue) • Maintaining honest communication • Dealing with loneliness • Dealing with anger • Managing your own anger • Dealing with anger in other people ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  9. Psychological Disorders • Anxiety Disorders • Simple phobia or Specific phobia • Fear of something definite • Most common and most understandable • Social phobia • Fear of humiliation or embarrassment while being observed by others • Panic disorders • Sudden unexpected surges in anxiety • Rapid and strong heart beat • Shortness of breath • Loss of physical equilibrium • Feeling of losing mental control ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Psychological Disorders • Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) • Reaction to future threats is to worry • Worries have taken over • Obsessive-Compulsive disorder (OCD) • Obsessions – recurrent, unwanted thoughts • Compulsions – repetitive, difficult-to-resist actions • Post-Traumatic Stress disorder (PTSD) • Reaction to a severely traumatic event • Treatment for anxiety disorders ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  11. Mood Disorders • Depression • Demoralization • Feeling of sadness and hopelessness • Loss of pleasure • Poor appetite • Insomnia • Restlessness • Thoughts of worthlessness • Trouble concentrating • Thoughts of death or suicide • Dysthymic disorder • Suicide • Warning signs • Treatment • Electroconvulsive therapy • Seasonal affective disorder ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  12. Recognizing the Warning Signs of Suicide Expressing the ‘wish’ to be dead Increasing social withdrawal/isolation Sudden inexplicable lightening of mood Previous history of attempts Suicide by a family member or friend Readily available means of committing suicide History of substance abuse or eating disorders Serious medical problems ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  13. ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Psychological Disorders • Mania and Bipolar Disorder • Gender differences • Equal numbers of men and women suffer, women are nearly twice as likely as men to be clinically depressed • Schizophrenia • Uncertain about what causes it • General characteristics • Disorganized thoughts • Inappropriate emotions • Delusions • Auditory hallucinations • Deteriorating social and work function ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Models of Human Nature and Therapeutic Change • Four Different perspectives • Biological • pharmacological therapy • Behavioral • Stimulus, response and reinforcement • Practice exposure • Cognitive • Ideas, attitudes, behaviors and feelings • Psychodynamic • Thoughts • Evaluation of the models • Combining different therapies ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Getting Help • Self Help • Books • Writing a journal • Religious • Social groups • Peer counseling and support groups • Professional • Determine the need • Choosing a mental health professional • Psychiatrists • Clinical psychologists • Social workers • Licensed Counselors • Clergy • Treatment Team ©2008 McGraw-Hill Companies. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Psychological Health Chapter Three