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Tass 1995 Noise-induced Entrainment & Stochastic Resonance in Human Brain Waves Toshio Mori & Shoichi Kai, 2002, PRL Tass 1995 Mori & Kai IEICE 2002 Motivation First demonstration of Stochastic Resonance in the human Steady State Evoked Response (SSER). ?

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noise induced entrainment stochastic resonance in human brain waves

Tass 1995

Noise-induced Entrainment & Stochastic Resonance in Human Brain Waves

Toshio Mori & Shoichi Kai, 2002, PRL

Tass 1995

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

motivation

Mori & Kai IEICE 2002

Motivation
  • First demonstration of Stochastic Resonance in the human Steady State Evoked Response (SSER).

?

  • Stochastic Resonance– Enhanced response to a weak signal in the presence of noise.
  • SSER– A periodic EEG response to a periodic sensory stimulus, such as flickering light or click sounds.

________________________________

  • First demonstrationthat sensory noise can enhance the periodic EEG response to a periodic sensory stimulus.

Mori & Kai PRL 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

agenda
Agenda
  • Background~30 min.

EEG, Steady State Evoked Response, Stochastic Resonance

  • What’s new ~15 min.

Setup, results, discussion

  • What’s missing ~15 min.

Mechanism,significance,data exclusion,dynamics, …

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

historical glance
1981 Benzi et al., Nicolis - Stochastic Resonance in climatic transitions.

1993 Douglass et al. - SR found in crayfish mechanoreceptors.

1995 Collins et al. predict neural SR can also enhance aperiodic signals.

1996 Cordo et al., Collins et al. – Psychopysical evidence for SR in human somatosensory perception.

1999 Russell et al. – Behavioural use of SR by paddle fish.

2001 Schmid et al. – SR as a collective property of ion channels.

1981 Galambos et al. first report 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response.

1995-97 Peter Tass models evoked visual hallucinations.

1997 December 16th – Dennō Senshi Porygon incident.

1998 Narici et al. – MEG SSER for auditory, visual and somatosensory stimuli at 6-14 Hz.

2000 Herrmann reports 1-100 Hz Steady State Visual Evoked Response.

Historical glance

Stochastic Resonance Steady State Response

  • 2002 Mori & Kai – Stochastic Resonance demonstrated in SSVER

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

reminder eeg

Wikimedia

Reminder: EEG

Ward et al. 2003

  • Measures electrical potential differences between electrodes placed on the scalp.
  • The signal is mainly affected by radial extra-cellular currents near cohorts of cortical neurons. 1-100 μV amplitudes, resolution of centimeters and milliseconds.
  • Asynchronous activity cancels out. A small number of synchronously firing neurons may dominate the overall resulting signal.
  • ~1/f spectral distribution. Peaks during wakefulness at ~10 Hz (α), ~20 Hz (β), ~40 Hz (γ) and ~6 Hz (θ). Varies among individuals.
  • Exhibits developmental changes through infancy and childhood.
  • Many cognitive tasks elicit consistent variations in EEG spectral power distribution.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Wikimedia

eeg meg jargon
EEG & MEG Jargon
  • Synchronization - An amplitude enhancement at a given frequency band.
  • Spontaneous activity – Pre-stimulus activity.
  • Evoked response - Change in frequency band power that is both time-locked and phase locked to a given stimulus or event.
  • Induced response – A change in frequency band power that is time-locked to the stimulus, but jitters in phase between trials (Arieli et al.). The induced activity is usually not revealed by traditional averaging techniques.
  • Ongoing (‘undriven’) activity - Post-stimulus activity that is not time-locked to the stimulus.
  • At present, the extent to which stimulus locking and amplitude changes reflect distinct processes remains unclear.

Rizzuto et al. 2003

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Mazaheri & Jensen 2005

historical glance7

“… most subjects reported form (stars or stripes) and color (blue, red or purple) illusions at frequencies around 10-15 Hz”. (…)

“The observed hallucinations could be due to the oscillating SSVEP propagating across retinotopic areas of visual cortex. One area then is successively excited and inhibited, thus leading to hallucinations. This phenomenon is known from certain kinds of epilepsies and has been simulated in mathematical models (Tass 1995, 1997). Some of our subjects were retrospectively shown the hallucinations calculated by Tass (1995) and reported them to be identical to the ones observed.” – Herrmann 2000

Herrmann 2000 (Rotated)

Historical glance

Ross et al. 2000

Steady State Response

  • 1981 Galambos et al. first report 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response.

(Leaping to 1998 and back to 1995)

  • 1998 Narici et al. – MEG SSER for auditory, visual and somatosensory stimuli at 6-14 Hz.
  • 2000 Herrmann reports 1-100 Hz Steady State Visual Evoked Response.
  • 1995-97 Peter Tass models evoked visual hallucinations.
  • 1997 December 16th – Dennō Senshi Porygon incident.

Artieda et al. 2004

Narici et al. 1998

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

historical glance8

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

Tass 1995

Historical glance

“… most subjects reported form (stars or stripes) and color (blue, red or purple) illusions at frequencies around 10-15 Hz”. (…)

“The observed hallucinations could be due to the oscillating SSVEP propagating across retinotopic areas of visual cortex. One area then is successively excited and inhibited, thus leading to hallucinations. This phenomenon is known from certain kinds of epilepsies and has been simulated in mathematical models (Tass 1995, 1997). Some of our subjects were retrospectively shown the hallucinations calculated by Tass (1995) and reported them to be identical to the ones observed.” – Herrmann 2000

Steady State Response

  • ~10 million viewers.
  • 685 children suffered epileptic seizures, ~200 hospitalized. In Aichi: 1:3500 girls, 1:7000 boys.
  • Induced by surprisingly weak stimulus (12 Hz, 625 nm red).
  • Retrograde amnesia was common.
  • 1981 Galambos et al. first report 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response.

(Leaping to 1998 and back to 1995)

  • 1998 Narici et al. – MEG SSER for auditory, visual and somatosensory stimuli at 6-14 Hz.
  • 2000 Herrmann reports 1-100 Hz Steady State Visual Evoked Response.
  • 1995-97 Peter Tass models evoked visual hallucinations.
  • 1997 December 16th – Dennō Senshi Porygon incident.

Takahashi & Tshukahara 2000

Oriental Light and Magic 1997

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Kyushu U.

historical glance9
1981 Galambos et al. first report 40 Hz Auditory Steady State Response.

1995-97 Peter Tass evoked visual hallucinations.

1997 December 16th – Dennō Senshi Porygon incident.

1998 Narici et al. – MEG SSER for auditory, visual and somatosensory stimuli at 6-14 Hz.

2000 Herrmann reports 1-100 Hz Steady State Visual Evoked Response.

1981 Benzi et al., Nicolis - Stochastic Resonance in climatic transitions.

1993 Douglass et al. - SR found in crayfish mechanoreceptors.

1995 Collins et al. predict neural SR can also enhance aperiodic signals.

1996 Cordo et al., Collins et al. – Psychopysical evidence for SR in human somatosensory perception.

1999 Russell et al. – Behavioural use of SR by paddle fish.

2001 Schmid et al. – SR as a collective property of ion channels.

Historical glance

Stochastic Resonance Steady State Response

  • 2002 Mori & Kai – Stochastic Resonance demonstrated in SSVER

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

historical glance10

Wikimedia

Historical glance

Stochastic Resonance

  • 1981 Benzi et al., Nicolis - Stochastic Resonance in climatic transitions.
  • 1993 Douglass et al. - SR found in crayfish mechanoreceptors.
  • 1995 Collins et al. predict neural SR can also enhance aperiodic signals.
  • 1996 Cordo et al., Collins et al. – Psychopysical evidence for SR in human somatosensory perception.
  • 1999 Russell et al. – Behavioural use of SR by paddle fish.
  • 2001 Schmid et al. – SR as a collective property of ion channels.

Benzi 2007

Rin(t) = R0+ R1cos(ωt)

C*(dT/dt) = Rin – Rout

C*(dT/dt) = [1 – a(T)] * Rin – bET

a(T) = albedo, bE = Emission coef.

  • 2002 Mori & Kai – Stochastic Resonance demonstrated in SSVER

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Wikimedia

Benzi 2007

historical glance11

Jiang et al. 2003

Simonotto et al. 1997

Wikimedia

Russell et al. 1999

Sakmann 1991

Schmid et al. 2001

Russell et al. 1999

Historical glance

Stochastic Resonance

  • 1981 Benzi et al., Nicolis - Stochastic Resonance in climatic transitions.
  • 1993 Douglass et al. - SR found in crayfish mechanoreceptors.
  • 1995 Collins et al. predict neural SR can also enhance aperiodic signals.
  • 1996 Cordo et al., Collins et al. – Psychopysical evidence for SR in human somatosensory perception.
  • 1999 Russell et al. – Behavioural use of SR by paddlefish.
  • 2001 Schmid et al. – SR as a collective property of ion channels.

No Extrinsic Noise Intrinsic + Extrinsic Noise

1993 Douglass et al.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Moss et al. 2004

2002 status summary
Found in numerous nonlinear systems.

Found in sensory receptors.

Affects psychophysical performance (visual, auditory, somatosensory, vestibular).

Used behaviourally (sparse evidence).

Theoretically modeled with intrinsic and extrinsic noise.

No clear mechanism.

Induced by numerous periodic signals.

Interacts with spontaneous activity.

Similar spectrogram across modalities (visual, auditory, somatosensory).

Might induce transient hallucinations (common) or seizures (rare).

No clear mechanism.

2002 Status Summary

Stochastic Resonance Steady State Response

  • 2002 Mori & Kai – Stochastic Resonance demonstrated in SSVER

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

experimental setup 1 2
Experimental setup – 1/2
  • 3x3 cm2 LED screen, 15 cm from the eyes.
  • Stimulus parameters:
    • Illuminance: 0.04 cd/m2(vs. 10-20 cd/m2 by Takahashi & Tsukahara 1998)
    • Pulse width: 100 μsec
    • Repetition rate: 5 Hz
    • 10 iterations of (10 sec. stimulation + 20 sec. rest)

Mori & Kai PRL 2002

Wikimedia

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

experimental setup 2 2
Experimental setup – 2/2
  • Noise bandpassed at 15-60 Hz.
  • Noise always presented to the left eye.
  • EEG recording filtered:
    • 100-order LPF
    • Cutoff frequency fc = 25 Hz
    • 40 dB/Octave attenuation
  • FFT parameters:
    • Rectangular window
    • 4096 positions (8.192 seconds)
    • 0.12 Hz resolution

Mori & Kai PRL 2002

Mori & Kai PRL 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

binocular entrainment
Binocular entrainment
  • The “entrainment” concept is ill-defined in general.
  • The same setup was also used for entrainment using binocular flicker stimulus.
  • Note Activity at occipital (bottom) electrode site.

Mori & Kai 2001

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

setting the weak stimulus
Setting the weak stimulus
  • Flicker alone at right eye.
  • Note heavy signal filtration (fc = 25 Hz, -40 dB/Octave, 100-order LPF).
  • Irradiance of weak stimulus set to non-entraining 30 μW/cm2
  • This irradiance is >100 times weaker than reported by Takahashi & Tsukahara 1998

Mori & Kai PRL 2002

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

Spontaneous 10.7 Hz activity at O1

Evoked by 10.5 Hz flicker

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

response dynamics
Response Dynamics
  • SSVER first observed over occipital electrode sites, within ~200 milliseconds.
  • Frontal-Occipital phase inversion.

Harada et al. 1991

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

response dynamics18
Response Dynamics
  • SSVER first observed over occipital electrode sites.
  • Frontal-Occipital phase inversion.

Harada et al. 1991

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

preferential entrainment frequency

Birca et al. 2006

Preferential entrainment frequency
  • The preferential entrainment frequency is different than the spontaneous alpha frequency.
  • This finding is later corroborated by Birca et al. over 41 children and 10 adults.
  • No consistent relationship found between the spontaneous and entrainment frequencies.

Nouha et al. 2001

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

noise induced entrainment
Noise-induced entrainment
  • Noise-induced entrainment was demonstrated both using a 5 Hz stimulus and using a 10 Hz stimulus.
  • Occipital dominance preserved.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Nouha et al. 2001

harmonic entrainment

Mori & Kai 2004

Harmonic Entrainment
  • Different papers give somewhat different reasons for using harmonic entrainment:
  • “Fundamental entrainment is often sensitive to uncontrollable factors such as the subject’s mental and physical conditions (e.g. stress) at the moment of testing, while harmonic entrainment is rather insensitive.” – Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002
  • “When a periodic stimulus with a period close to that of the α-wave is applied, entrainment at the fundamental frequency is easily produced by a slight change of the physical or mental conditions, even if the stimulus is weak. Consequently, we investigate entrainment at the harmonic frequency, where the frequency is far from the α-wave frequency (fα) of the subject and entrainment is not easily induced by the above factors”. – Mori & Kai 2004

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

exhibition of stochastic resonance
Exhibition of Stochastic Resonance
  • Suggested to be a universal effect.
  • Only observed at occipital electrode sites (for a visual stimulus).
  • Error bars not shown.

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

Mori & Kai UPonN 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

so what s missing in my opinion
So what’s missing in my opinion?
  • Mechanism
  • Inter-individual Variability
  • Significance
  • Data exclusion
  • Dynamics
  • Cognitive implication
  • Quantification

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

mechanism
Mechanism?
  • “The optimum intensity of the noisy stimulus synchronizes more α oscillators in the human brain.” – Mori & Kai, PRL 2002

> Apparently, other methods than EEG are required to investigate the underlying mechanism.

  • “Thus, we bypass sensory organs and observe the SR in the visual cortex itself” – Mori & Kai, PRL 2002

> The cortical observations may stem from thalamic SR. This possibility is reflected in a later paper which puts it as: “a phenomenon produced in the visual information processing system following the optical chiasm”. – Mori & Kai 2004

Nouha et al. 2001

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

variability
Variability?
  • “The fact that the optimal noise intensity In* differs among individuals (Fig. 10) indicates that the potential barrier of the oscillators differs among individuals. The fact that the spectral peak Pe* differs indicates that different numbers of oscillators are concerned with entrainment.” –Mori & Kai 2004
  • However, the individual In*, Pe* are not provided in fig. 10 or elsewhere, except for subject S.

(In* = 54.5 μW/cm2, Pe* = 51.9 μV2/sec)

  • Error bars only shown for subject S, earlier.

RANDOMLY GENERATED “DATA”

FOR DEMONSTRATION ONLY

Mori & Kai 2004

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002

reproducibility and significance
Reproducibility and Significance
  • 5 subjects (male, 22±2 years)
  • “We retested several of these subjects on subsequent days and obtained similar results. Although subjects are five in the present study, the obtained results therefore, have sufficient statistical significance.” – Mori & Kai J. Bifur. 2002
  • However, statistical significance calculations are no where to be found, at least in English papers.
  • Such a strong effect has not been reproduced as yet (March 2008).

Mori & Kai UPonN 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

data exclusion
Data exclusion
  • “Starting point of the photic stimulus was at zero-cross point in the α-wave changing from a positive to negative value. The data out of this definition and the data due to falling into a sleep were excluded” – Mori & Kai, J. Bifur. 2002
  • What portion of the data has been excluded for each of these reasons?
  • This exclusion is not mentioned in the corresponding PRL paper.

Nouha et al. 2001

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

spectral dynamics
Spectral Dynamics?

Skosnik et al. 2006

  • Dynamics are not shown in this paper.
  • Older papers show some dynamics, but no time-frequency diagrams.
  • Only evoked activity is considered, while induced and ongoing activities may be of cognitive relevance as well.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

what happened afterwards

Kitajo et al. 2003

What happened afterwards?
  • 2003 Kitajo et al. use a similar setup to demonstrate a mild but significant contribution of visual noise to psychophysical performance in a sensorimotor task.
  • 2007 Tanaka et al. report a weak SR in MEG 40 Hz ASSR – 3/9 amplitude, 3/9 phase, 3/9 null.

Tanaka et al. 2007

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

highlights
Highlights
  • First convincing evidence for occipital EEG entrainment by a weak visual stimulus, in the presence of visual noise.
  • Innovative methodology insures that SR also occurs beyond the sensory receptors.
  • Unclear mechanism.
  • Small sample size, significance not explicitly shown.
  • Not reproduced enough as yet.
  • Might explain the Dennō Senshi Porygon incident.
  • Unclear cognitive implication.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

acknowledgements
Acknowledgements

I would like to thank Professor Shoichi Kai for his kind and helpful replies to my questions.

Manuscripts of [4-7] were kindly provided by Professor Kai.

Many thanks to my friends who reviewed this presentation: Ariel, Avshalom, Daniel, Julia & Maya.

With ongoing gratitude to Dr. Daniel Levy.

Thank you for coming!

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

questions
Questions?

Oriental Light and Magic 1997

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

bibliography mori kai
Bibliography – Mori & Kai
  • Mori T., Kai S., 'Noise-Induced Entrainment and Stochastic Resonance in Human Brain Waves', Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 218101, 2002 http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.218101
  • Mori T., Kai S., ‘The Human Brain Uses Noise’, in ‘Unsolved Problems of Noise Fluctuations’ UPonN 2002 :Third International Conference,Vol.665, pp.227-233, 2003 http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1584895
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  • Mori T., Kai S., 'Stochastic resonance in the brain', Systems and Computers in Japan 35 11, Pages 39 - 47, 24 Aug 2004 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/scj.10398
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  • K. Harada, S. Nishifuji, S. Kai, K. Hirakawa, ‘Response of Alpha Wave to Flicker Stimulation’,IEICE Transactions ,Vol. E 74, No.6, P.1486-1491, 1991 http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e74-a_6_1486&category=A&lang=&year=1991
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Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

bibliography stochastic resonance
Bibliography – Stochastic Resonance
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Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

bibliography steady state evoked response
Bibliography – Steady State Evoked Response
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Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

bibliography photosensitive epilepsy
Bibliography – Photosensitive Epilepsy
  • Oriental Light and Magic, ‘でんのうせんしポリゴン ‘, December 16th1997
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  • Pikachu dynamics and brain http://www.e.ap.kyushu-u.ac.jp/ap/research/nouha/index-j.html
  • Wikimedia Commons

A low-quality version of the problematic Pokemon scene is available at:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-Ybd0Yby68

But you better not watch it.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Sakmann 1991

Schmid et al. 2001

Supplementary

Jiang et al. 2003

Intrinsic noise Intrinsic+extrinsic noise

1993 Douglass et al.

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

Moss et al. 2004

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Supplementary

Tass 1995

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Takahashi & Tsukahara 1998

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Supplementary

Nicolis 1993

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Tootell et al. 1982

Bressloff et al. 2002

Ermentrout et al. 1979

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Bressloff et al. 2002

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG

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Herrmann 2000

Noise-induced Entrainment in Human EEG