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The 3 C’s of Learning: Conceptualizing, Collaborating and Clicking: Hints for Improving Clickers in the Classroom. Barbara Gaddis, Science Learning Center, UCCS Margaret Asirvatham, Chemistry, UCB Allen Schoffstall, Chemistry, UCCS Larry Augenstein, Chemistry, UCCS

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slide1

The 3 C’s of Learning: Conceptualizing, Collaborating and Clicking: Hints for Improving Clickers in the Classroom

Barbara Gaddis, Science Learning Center, UCCS

Margaret Asirvatham, Chemistry, UCB

Allen Schoffstall, Chemistry, UCCS

Larry Augenstein, Chemistry, UCCS

University of Colorado at Boulder

and Colorado Springs

Electronic Polling Symposium BCCE, August, 2006

slide2

How useful are Concept Tests in

helping you to learn the material?

General Chemistry I, Fall 2003

18%

27%

47%

  • Extremely useful
  • B) Quite useful
  • C) Somewhat useful
  • D) Minimally useful
  • E) Totally useless

841 students (432 responses)

General Chemistry I, Spring 2004

27%

20%

49%

289 students (202 responses)

slide3

Have Concept Tests encouraged

improved performance in this course?

General Chemistry I, Fall 2003

28%

13%

17%

36%

  • Yes
  • B) Kind-of
  • C) Neutral
  • D) Not really
  • E) No

841 students (456 responses)

General Chemistry I, Spring 2004

11%

31%

11%

44%

289 students (202 responses)

slide4

Why Clickers?

Courtesy

Mike Dubson

Physics

UCB

clickers in the large lecture class
Anonymous and timely feedback

Interactive and engaging

Increase attendance

Real-time assessment with easy grading

Fosters collaboration

Inexpensive, easy to use

Increase individual accountability

Takes time

Limitations on answer format

Trivial questions encourage superficial learning

Frustration

Cheating

Punitive

Clickers in the large lecture class

???? Do clickers improve learning????

types of clicker questions
Types of Clicker Questions
  • Testing for knowledge
  • Algorithmic
  • *Problem-based
  • Identification of misconceptions
  • Applications
  • Visual representations
  • Analysis
  • *Synthesis
slide8
Testing for knowledge:

Check on preparedness, provide feedback on understanding, assess knowledge from a prior course.

slide9

Catching Common Errors

  • Which is the strongest base?
  • A. CH3OH
  • B. CH3ONa
  • C. H2O
  • D. NH3
  • E. Both A and B
slide10

Checking for Understanding

  • Which of the following molecules is(are) chiral?
    • A. I
    • B. II
    • C. II and III
    • D. II and IV
    • E. II, III, and IV
name the following compound
Name the following compound

Algorithmic

A. Isopentylcyclohexane

B. 1-Methylbutylcyclohexane

C. Methyl-sec-pentylcyclohexane

D. 2-Cyclohexylpentane

E. 2-Pentylcyclohexane

slide12
Detection of Misconceptions

Iron combines with oxygen and water from the air to form rust. If an iron nail were allowed to rust completely, one should find that the rust weighs:

  • less than the nail it came from.
  • the same as the nail it came from.
  • more than the nail it came from.
  • It is impossible to predict.

Journal of Chemical Education concept inventory ,http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu:8000/

slide13
Follow–up with Misconception (Tier 2):

What is the rationale behind your answer?

  • Rusting makes the nail lighter.
  • Rust contains iron and oxygen.
  • The nail flakes away.
  • The iron from the nail is destroyed.
  • The flaky rust weighs less than iron.
slide14
Application to real world experiences

Make predictions about demonstrations or experiments and explain observations.

Q1. A flask containing a small amount of boiling water and a peeled hard-boiled egg is fit snugly into the mouth of the flask. What will happen when the flask is allowed to cool?

Q2. What explanation best accounts for your observation?

http://www.cchem.berkeley.edu/demolab/demoindex2.htm

stoichiometry limiting reagent demo
Stoichiometry: Limiting Reagent Demo

Mg(s) + 2 HCl(aq)  MgCl2(aq) + H2(g)

Flask # Moles of Mg(s) Moles of HCl(aq)

Flask 1 0.0125 0.1000

Flask 2 0.0250 0.1000

Flask 3 0.0500 0.1000

Flask 4 0.1000 0.1000

What will be the relative sizes of the balloons above the flasks when the reaction is complete?

A) V1 = V2 = V3 = V4 B) V1 < V2 < V3 < V4

C) V1 < V2 < V3 = V4 D) V1 < V2 = V3 < V4

E) V1 < V2 = V3 = V4

Colors represent three

different lecture sections

in Fall 2004

slide16

Visualization and representations

A sealed vessel filled with water is evaporated. Use the symbols below to demonstrate this process.

http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/

slide17
Analysis and Justification

Draw the first step in the mechanism of the reaction of acetic acid with methanol and HCl. What is the structure of the intermediate formed in this step?

slide18
Justifying an answer, analyzing a wrong response.

Why is the intermediate with protonated carbonyl oxygen more likely than the species with the alcohol oxygen protonated?

A. The carbonyl oxygen is more acidic.

B. The alcohol oxygen is a weaker acid.

C. The carbonyl oxygen had two lone pairs of electrons.

D. The intermediate can delocalize the positive charge through resonance.

E. The intermediate can undergo intramolecular hydrogen bonding.

the student voices behind the data
The student voices behind the data…

“I think it’s very beneficial when two people are sort of on the same level and are struggling together. When I actually struggled with certain concepts and I worked on them on my own… I mean, when a teacher explains certain things, you almost take it for granted, and you say ‘Okay, I understand where they can get that idea from,’ but you don’t really grasp why it is that way. It’s definitely like, when you have the discussion (with your peer)- that is really awesome… you are discussing the problem and you guys are working together and there are many common concepts that you both have problems with.” (freshman, male)

do you think that using clickers is beneficial to learning why or why not
“I look at it as really positive. They’re pausing from their lecture to take out one or two minutes, to let us get a self-test, ‘Am I understanding this?’ It’s like a bonus, to me- it breaks up the monotony of (lecture)… It forces you to pause after you’ve absorbed something, to reflect on it, to check yourself, ‘do I understand what’s happening?”

(non-traditional, male)

“I think it’s really beneficial to learning… it’s about the instant feedback. It’s good even for the teachers because if they see that if the majority… well not even the majority, but if a major portion of the class is voting for something else, then they obviously need to spend more time on that concept.”

(freshman, female)

Do you think that using clickers is beneficial to learning, why or why not?
slide21

Learning: Pre- and Post-Tests

  • Two beakers of distilled water are under the same room conditions in the laboratory. One beaker is boiling vigorously, and the other is boiling gently. Which is true?
    • a. The temperature of the vigorously boiling water is higher.
    • b. The temperature of the gently boiling water is higher.
    • c. The temperature of the water in both beakers is the same.
    • d. The boiling points of thewater in the two beaker are different.
    • e. The temperature in the vigorously boiling water is not uniform.
conclusions
Conclusions
  • Clickers improve attendance, interest, engagement, participation.
  • Students think they are learning more.
  • Carefully constructed questions can help to optimize learning.
  • Collaboration is important
  • Large lecture becomes a “conversational classroom”

W. M. Waite, M. H. Jackson, and A. Diwan. The Conversational Classroom. In Proceedings of the 34 SIGCSE Technical Symposium on Computer ScienceEducation, Reno, Nevada, pages 127--131. ACM Press, New York, Feb. 2003.

sources of concept questions
Sources of Concept Questions
  • Journal of Chemical Education Online (http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu:8000/

JCEDLib/QBank/collection/CQandChP/index.html)

  • Burness, James H. The use of "marathon" problems as effective vehicles for the presentation of general chemistry lectures. J. Chem. Educ.1991, 68, 919.
  • Conceptual Challenge Problems in Moore, J. W.; Stanitski, C. L.; Wood, J. L.; Kotz, J. C.; Joesten, M. D. The Chemical World, 2nd ed.; Saunders: Philadelphia, 1998.
  • End-of-chapter marathon problems (the equivalent of challenge problems) in Zumdahl, S. S. Chemistry, 4th ed.; Houghton Mifflin: Boston, 1997.
slide24
Mike Dubson, Department of Physics, UCB

Student Achievement Assessment Committee, UCCS

College of LAS, UCCS

Information Technology, UCCS

amschoff@uccs.edu

Acknowledgements