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International Technical Symposium
20 March 2008
Ethanol production cost depends on several key factors:
Plant investment costs are about $1.50 per U.S. gallon (USD 0.40 per litre) of annual capacity for a grain-based plant. This value can be higher for small plants or unusual feedstocks. It can be lower for large corn plants.
World Fuel Ethanol Production(2002-2010F)
Millions of MT
Source: F.O. Licht, Novozymes Analysis
What roles do enzymes play in the operation of an ethanol plant?
OPTIONAL ENZYMES depending on raw materials:
Protein hydrolysis to produce FAN for yeast nutrition
“The cook process”
(aka: primary liquefaction)
Temperature: 182-185oF (82 – 85 C)
DE target: 4-6
- Final DE Target is 10-12
“Yeast Nutrition and Production of Alcohol”
Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation
Spirizyme® Fuel glucoamylase generates fermentable sugar (glucose) in the fermenter at the same time as the yeast is converting the sugar to ethanol.
Mash from Liquefaction
CO2 to Scrubber
is added to the
the mash fill
90 - 93oF
(32 – 34 C)
pH 3.8 - 5.0
88 - 90oF (31 - 32C)
pH 3.6 - 4.0
Starch ------------> Glucose -----------> Ethanol
162 180 44 46
1000 kg starch 2 x 46 x 1000 = 568 kg ethanol = 720 litres ethanol
Density of alcohol = 0.789 g/l
Typically in the industry, the yield efficiency is 93% of the theoretical.
So realistically, one ton of, say, corn, with 70% starch content,
will give about 468 litres of ethanol.
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