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enzyme applications for the fuel ethanol industry

Title slide

Edit: Add presentation title and speaker(s).

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Enzyme Applications for the Fuel Ethanol Industry

AIDA

International Technical Symposium

New Delhi

20 March 2008

Mary Chan

Customer Solutions

topics
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONTopics
  • Ethanol Industry Overview
  • Various Feedstocks
  • What are Enzymes
  • Enzymes for ethanol production from starch
  • Ethanol Process Overview
    • Cooking and Liquefaction
    • SSF (Simultaneous Saccharification & Fermentation)
  • Theoretical ethanol yields
ethanol as a fuel source
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONEthanol as a Fuel Source
  • Ethanol – the first fuel used by the pioneers of the automobile industry.
  • Ethanol – more than a source of power:
    • High octane, replaces carcinogenic aromatics and tetraethyl lead
    • High oxygen content, without the problems of ethers such as MTBE
    • Reduces carbon dioxide emissions, because the CO2 produced is reabsorbed by the starch crops.
    • Reduces dependence on Middle Eastern crude oil
    • Helps support the local agricultural economy
  • Proven in billions of kilometers of use in all climates in high performance, economy, and truck engines.
  • Used in millions of cars.
    • Most cars in Brazil are flex-fuel vehicles, allowing 95% ethanol or lower blends. “Regular” gasoline contains 25% ethanol in Brazil
    • In the U.S., almost 40% of the gasoline sold contains 10% ethanol.
    • There are over five million flexible fuel vehicles on the road in the U.S. These vehicles can use E-85 (85% ethanol), E-10 (10% ethanol), or straight gasoline equally well.
ethanol cost of production
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONEthanol – Cost of Production

Ethanol production cost depends on several key factors:

  • The cost of the raw materials (Corn, cassava, wheat, molasses)
  • The cost of energy (Natural gas, coal, bagasse)
  • The value of the coproducts (Distillers dry grains, electricity)

Plant investment costs are about $1.50 per U.S. gallon (USD 0.40 per litre) of annual capacity for a grain-based plant. This value can be higher for small plants or unusual feedstocks. It can be lower for large corn plants.

state of the industry
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONState of the Industry
  • Brazil produces more than 18 billion liters of ethanol per year for automotive use.
  • U.S. produces over 20 billion liters, mostly blended with gasoline as a 10% mixture.
  • Currently there are over 100 ethanol plants in the U.S. with many more under construction.
  • U.S. legislation requires 30 billion liters of renewable fuels in use by 2008.
  • Europe has just begun their development, with almost one billion liters of production.
slide7
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONGlobal fuel ethanol production has doubled in the past 5years, and will continue to grow at 20% plus annually through 2010

World Fuel Ethanol Production(2002-2010F)

77.5

Total

Others

China

67.1

Europe

54.8

Millions of MT

USA

44.5

35.5

23.4

22.5

21.4

17.4

Brazil

Source: F.O. Licht, Novozymes Analysis

advantages of various grains as feedstocks
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONAdvantages of Various Grains as Feedstocks
  • Maize (corn) – Easily transported and stored, well-developed agricultural machinery, valuable coproduct (distillers grains for cattle)
  • Wheat and barley – the same as maize, but better suited to shorter and colder climates.
  • Cassava – high starch content, and can be produced in tropical climates where grains cannot grow.
  • Lignocellulosic biomass – a universally available source of carbohydrate, but commercially viable collection and pretreatment is yet to be developed.
what are enzymes11
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONWhat are enzymes?
    • Enzymes are natures catalysts
    • Enzymes are not living organisms, but found in all living organisms
    • Enzymes are efficient and specific...if you treat them right !
    • Industrial enzymes are made by micro-organisms
  • Functional proteins made up of chains of amino acids linked together by peptide bonds.
  • Highly specific - named for the substrate they work on, i.e. “proteases” for proteins, “amylases” for amylose and amylopectin, etc.
  • Safe, however, good chemical hygiene is always recommended.
    • Work under mild conditions
    • Replace harsh chemicals such as strong acids
    • Biologically degradable
    • A “clean technology”
enzymes are specific catalysts
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONEnzymes are specific catalysts

Substrate = Starch

http://www.labbench.com

enzymes are used to produce many of the products we use everyday
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONEnzymes are used to produce many of the products we use everyday
  • Enzymes normally:
    • Reduce energy & water consumption
    • Reduce the need for harsh chemicals
    • Reduce the amount of by-products
    • Improve yields
slide16
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

What roles do enzymes play in the operation of an ethanol plant?

what does it take to turn starch into ethanol
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONWhat does it take to turn starch into ethanol?
  • Yeast cannot take up large starch molecules (Dextrins)
  • Starch must be converted into simple sugars, such as glucose

Conversion

the fuel ethanol process
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONThe Fuel Ethanol Process

Break down starch to dissolved sugars

(Enzymes convert starch to simple sugar)

Fermentation of sugar to produce ethanol

(Yeast converts glucose into ethanol)

Purify ethanol to a concentrated form

(Distillation)

why where enzymes are added
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

Decrease

Viscosity

Produce

Dextrins

Produce

glucose

Enhance

Fermentation

Why & Where Enzymes are Added

Jet

Cooker

a-amylase

Ammonia

Lique-

faction

Slurry

a-amylase

Yeast nutrients

Fermentation

Glucoamylase

(Protease)

Starter Yeast

Yeast nutrients

Yeast

propagator

enzymes for the production of fuel ethanol from starch
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONEnzymes for the production of Fuel Ethanol from Starch

Liquefaction

  • Liquozyme SC
  • Liquozyme SC DS

Saccharification

  • Spirizyme Fuel

OPTIONAL ENZYMES depending on raw materials:

Viscosity Reduction

  • Viscozyme range of enzymes
    • Viscozyme Wheat, Viscozyme Barley, Viscozyme Rye.

Protein hydrolysis to produce FAN for yeast nutrition

  • Alcalase 2.5L DX
slide23
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

Liquefaction

“The cook process”

slurry tank
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONSlurry Tank
  • Heat via steam injection or other is added to allow the enzyme to start the liquefaction process

(aka: primary liquefaction)

  • Starch begins to “gelatinize,” swelling with water and causing viscosity increase
  • Agitation is very important!
  • Alpha amylase is added to reduce the viscosity and make mash “pumpable”
  • Targets (very important):

Temperature: 182-185oF (82 – 85 C)

DE target: 4-6

pH: 5.6-5.8

hydroheater jet cooker
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONHydroheater - Jet Cooker

Steam

p = 30 - 50 psi

Mash

Time

Temperature

Shear

Helps make dextrins accessible for enzyme action!

cook liquefaction
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONCook/Liquefaction

Primary Liquefaction:

  • Gelatinize the starch
  • Rapidly reduce the viscosity of the gelatinized mash
  • Keep a low DE before the jet (4-6)

Secondary Liquefaction:

  • Converts large starch molecules to dextrins
  • Dextrin formation measured by DE

- Final DE Target is 10-12

  • Further decrease the mash viscosity which increases heat exchanger efficiency
viscosity reduction demo
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONViscosity Reduction Demo
  • Mix cassava flour + boiling water
  • Note it becomes thick - viscosity increase from starch gelatinization
  • Add 1 drop Liquozyme®SC DS
  • Ensure good agitation
  • Note rapid viscosity break
slide28
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

SSF

Simultaneous Saccharifaction

& Fermentation

“Yeast Nutrition and Production of Alcohol”

slide29
SSF

Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation

Spirizyme® Fuel glucoamylase generates fermentable sugar (glucose) in the fermenter at the same time as the yeast is converting the sugar to ethanol.

ssf process flow
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONSSF Process Flow

Mash from Liquefaction

CO2 to Scrubber

Mash

Coolers

Batch Fermentation

  • Spirizyme Fuel

is added to the

fermenters via

the mash fill

header.

Water

Yeast

Propagator

Ferm. #1

Ferm. #2

Ferm. #3

Ferm. #4

Spirizyme Fuel,

Yeast

To Beerwell

and Distillation

90 - 93oF

(32 – 34 C)

pH 3.8 - 5.0

88 - 90oF (31 - 32C)

pH 3.6 - 4.0

what does glucoamylase do
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

Simple

sugars

Long chain sugars

(Dextrins)

What does Glucoamylase do?
  • Glucoamylase generates simple sugars that the yeast can use in the fermenter
  • At the same time, the yeast are converting the sugar to ethanol!
glucoamylase action
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONGlucoamylase action
  • Gluco-amylase breaks down long glucose chains (dextrins) into individual glucose molecules
what happens in fermentation
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONWhat Happens in Fermentation?

GlucoseEthanol + CO2

+ Heat

Remember: Fermentation is a race between the yeast and undesirable bacteria!

Practice good plant sanitation!

Yeast

ethanol yield from starch
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONETHANOL YIELD FROM STARCH

hydrolysis fermentation

Starch ------------> Glucose -----------> Ethanol

[C6H10O5]n----->n[C6H12O6]----->2n[CO2 +C2H5OH]

162 180 44 46

1000 kg starch  2 x 46 x 1000 = 568 kg ethanol = 720 litres ethanol

162

Density of alcohol = 0.789 g/l

Typically in the industry, the yield efficiency is 93% of the theoretical.

So realistically, one ton of, say, corn, with 70% starch content,

will give about 468 litres of ethanol.

a bushel of corn is 25kg 56lbs
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONA Bushel of Corn is 25kg (56lbs)

Wet Corn 25 kg

Starch 15.3 kg

Sugars 17 kg

Ethanol 8.1 kg(93% efficiency)

CO2 7.7 kg(93% efficiency)

Heat 1,542 kcal

DDG 7.6 kg

in conclusion
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATIONIn Conclusion…..
  • The ethanol industry is expanding at a very rapid rate, providing environmentally acceptable fuels while improving local economics.
  • Today, the reliability of the technology, the yeast, and the enzymes are such that the process is robust and reliable.
slide37
NOVOZYMES PRESENTATION

CONCEPT:

SUPERGRAPHICS ANIMATION WITH LOOP

EXPERIENCE:

NICE LIGHT EFFECT. THE ANIMATION LOOPS AND CAN BE USED AS A PAUSE SCREEN OR AGENDA DIVIDER.

ANIMATION TIME:

UNLIMITED

NOTICE:

NEEDS TWO MOUSE CLICKS TO ADVANCE TO NEXT SLIDE IN PRESENTATION

Thank Youfor your attention Please visit our websitewww.novozymes.com