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Marijuana

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    1. Marijuana T.O Phase I

    3. The most potent form of cannabis is from India and is known as Charas. This consists of pure resin that has been carefully removed from the surface of leaves and stems. Hashish in its purest form is pure resin. It may be less pure depending on how carefully the resin has been separated from the plant material. Ganja is the 2nd most potent form and consists of the dried flowering tops of female plants. This produces high quality marijuana known as sinsemilla. Bhang is also from India. It is a low grade marijuana that is rare in the U.S. Bhang consists mainly of the leaves of the plant. How is Cannabis Prepared?

    4. The potency of marijuana varies widely from low to high grade and can contain anywhere from less than 1% THC to high grade marijuana containing more than 9% THC. The usual range is between 2 and 5 percent. According to the DEA, the proportion of confiscated marijuana samples containing more than 9% THC has increased from 3% of samples in 1992 to 15% of samples in 2001. Potency of Marijuana in the U.S.

    5. The earliest marijuana reference was made in 2737 BC by Chinese emperor Shen Nung. The emperor recommended marijuana be used for female weakness, gout, rheumatism, malaria, beriberi, constipation, and absent mindedness. By 1000 AD, marijuana was being used socially in North Africa and the Muslim world. Uncertain when it was discovered in the Americas, but early settlers initially used hemp as a fiber crop for making rope. Mentioned in 1844 in Alexander Dumas The Count of Monte Cristo. Early History of Marijuana

    6. By 1935 36 states had laws regulating the use, sale, and/or possession of marijuana. By the end of 1936, all 48 states had similar laws. In 1937- congressional hearings were held. Police were reporting most crimes of violence are laid to users of marijuana. Legal Controls on Marijuana

    7. A federal law which did not outlaw cannabis or preparations of cannabis. Taxed the grower, distributor, seller, and buyer. Administratively, made it almost impossible for anyone to have anything to do with it. Around the same time, state laws made possession and the use of marijuana illegal. After the tax act, a sharp reduction in reports of crimes committed under the influence of marijuana occurred. The price of the drug increased as well. The Marijuana Tax Act of 1937

    8. There are 400 chemicals in marijuana; 66 are known as cannabinoids. THC is a cannabinoid. When smoked, THC is rapidly absorbed into the bloodstream. THC is first delivered to the brain, then, is redistributed to the rest of the body. Within 30 minutes, most is gone from the brain. After one week, 25-30% of THC and its metabolites remain in the brain. Pharmacology

    9. THC binds to 2 receptor sites in the brain; known as CB1 and CB2. CB2 sites are found mainly outside the brain in the immune cells and may play a role in modulating immune responses. CB1 sites are primarily found in the brain in the basal ganglia. The basal ganglia are involved in coordinating body movements. How Marijuana Works in the Brain

    10. The most consistent acute effects are increased heart rate and increased blood pressure. Some evidence shows possible permanent adverse effects on the cardiovascular system. Other acute effects include- reddening of the eyes, dryness of the mouth and throat. In heavy marijuana smokers- severe impairment in pulmonary functioning is possible. Physiological Effects

    11. In 1992, marijuana went from a schedule I to a schedule II drug. Used for Glaucoma patients- helps to reduce fluid pressure in the eye. For chemotherapy and AIDS patients- helps to increase appetite. Marinol- THC capsule used for chemotherapy patients to reduce nausea Medical Uses

    12. Cannabinoid withdrawal not life threatening, but unpleasant. Symptoms may include- anxiety, restlessness, depression, irritability, disrupted sleep, decreased food intake, and aggressive behavior. Symptoms can begin after one day of cannabinoid cessation, and may last from 4 to 12 days. Abuse and Dependence

    13. As marijuana users age, there is concern that individuals with hypertension, heart disease, or hardening of the arteries may be harmed by smoking marijuana. Driving studies show that reaction time is lowered by marijuana; therefore, accidents are more likely. Panic reactions- similar to bad trips with hallucinogens. Usually, the individual will fear a loss of control as well as a fear that things will not return to normal. Many people do go to ERs because of this and are usually given sedatives. Usually, the best way to help someone in this situation is to talk them down. Toxicity Potential

    14. Chronic lung exposure- studies show daily marijuana smoking impairs air flow in and out of the lungs. Though there are no direct links to cancer yet, researchers expect to find some soon as it took many years for cigarettes to be linked with lung cancer. Reproductive effects in men- decreased testosterone, diminished sperm count, & abnormal sperm structure. In women- low birth weight and decreased length at birth. Toxicity Potential contd.

    15. Immune system- decreases immunity to infections. Amotivational syndrome- characterized by; diminished motivation, impaired ability to learn, school and family problems. Brain damage-THC causes permanent changes in the structure of neurons in the hippocampus. The hippocampus is associated with memory. Toxicity Potential contd.

    16. In 2000, the DEA reported that 76% of current illicit drug users use marijuana; about 59% of current illicit drug users consumed only marijuana. In 2002, NDIC referred to marijuana as the most widely available illicit drug in the U.S. The National Drug Threat Assessment 2002 reported: 76 million individuals aged 12 and older had tried marijuana in their lifetime; more than 18 million had used in the past year; and nearly 11 million in the past month; and on an average day, 5,556 individuals try marijuana for the first time, of which 3,814 are aged 12 to 17. Whos Using Marijuana?

    17. Young adults have been shown to be at a great risk for trying marijuana when they leave home. Young adults age 18 to 25 have the highest rate of marijuana related ER episodes, the next highest was individuals between 12 and 17. A study by SAMHSA in Florida found substance abuse treatment admissions for marijuana totaled 19.6% (14,391). The majority of these admissions were for individuals ages 15 to 17 (36.5%) and 18 to 20 (15.4%). Whos Using Marijuana contd.