youth sports l.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Youth Sports PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Youth Sports

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 69

Youth Sports - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 1009 Views
  • Uploaded on

Youth Sports Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program? “to have fun” “ Winning the game ” ranks near the bottom of the list . Youth Sports Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Youth Sports' - jaden


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide2

Do you know what the #1 reason children cite for their participation in a sports program?“to have fun” “Winning the game” ranks near the bottom of the list.

youth sports3
Youth Sports
  • Athletic endeavors that provide children and youth with a systematic sequence of practices and contests
  • 39 million youth participate in nonschool sponsored programs
  • 7 million youth participate in interscholastic sports
youth sports4
Youth Sports

Why are so many children involved?

  • Trend toward earlier participation
    • A 4-year-old holds the age group record for running a marathon
  • Increase in female participation
    • The number of interscholastic sports for girls has increased from 14 (1971) to 41 (1999)
youth sports5
Youth Sports

Why are so many children involved?

  • Children are beginning to get involved in what used to be considered nontraditional sport activities
    • Tennis, cycling, bowling, ice hockey, cross-country skiing
  • Rule changes
    • Even the youngest child can experience success
youth sports6
Youth Sports

Why are so many children involved?

  • There is an increased in the number of disabled children who participate
    • American Wheelchair Bowling Association
    • Handicapped Scuba Association
    • National Foundation of Wheelchair Tennis
    • National Wheelchair Softball Association
    • Special Olympics
    • United States Quad Rugby Association
youth sports7
Youth Sports
  • Benefits of youth sport activities
    • Academic performance improvement
    • Physical fitness
    • Self-esteem enhancement
    • Deterrent to negative behavior
why children participate in sports
Why Children Participate in Sports
  • To have fun
  • To improve skills
  • To be with friends
  • To be part of a team
  • To experience excitement
  • To receive awards
  • To win
  • To become physically fit(Wankel & Kreisel, 1985)
why children participate in sports11
Why Children Participate in Sports
  • Wankel and Kreisel (1985)
    • Emphasis should be on involvement, skill development, and enjoyment of doing the skills
    • According to the children, winning and receiving rewards for playing are of secondary importance
why children drop out of sports
Why Children Drop Out of Sports
  • Contrary to popular belief, children do not drop out of sports because of stress
  • More often, withdrawing from a sport is due to interpersonal problems
  • Pursue other leisure activities
  • Researchers report that a majority of “dropouts” reenter the same or new sport
    • Caution should be used when using the term “sport dropout”
why children drop out of sports15
Why Children Drop Out of Sports

“I would play again if”

sport participation controversies
Sport Participation: Controversies
  • Medical Issues
    • Football
    • Baseball
    • Soccer
    • Downhill skiing
    • In-line skating
    • Overuse injuries
    • Are youth sports injuries avoidable?
    • Nutrition
    • Making weight
sport participation controversies football
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football
  • Football is classified as a contact/collision sport
  • Injury rate increases as players mature in age and grade level
  • 65% of the injuries occur in offensive players
  • However overall injury rate for youth football is low (~5%)
sport participation controversies football18
Most prone injury sites

Hand/wrist

Knee

Shoulder/humerus

Most common injuries

Fractures

Epiphyseal fractures

Sprains

Contusions

Strains

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Football
sport participation controversies baseball
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball
  • Relatively safe sport for youth
    • Two major injuries: chest and eye injuries
  • Chest trauma
    • Commotio cordis – batter struck in chest with pitched ball; catcher struck by foul tipped ball
    • Occurs more often in boys under 16 yr
    • 2-4 deaths reported each year
sport participation controversies baseball20
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Baseball
  • Eye injuries
    • Softer ball used because of the concern for commotio cordis
    • Fewer commotio cordis injuries result
    • However, physicians are concerned that a softer ball will allow more of the ball to enter the eye orbit, resulting in a greater number of eye injuries
sport participation controversies soccer
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
  • Soccer is classified as a contact/collision sport
  • One of North America’s fastest growing sports
  • Studies suggest that youth soccer is a relatively safe activity
    • Most injuries are from person-to-person contact
sport participation controversies soccer22
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
  • Classic study (Nilsson & Roaas, 1978)
    • Examined injury rate from 1975-1977 in two tournaments (Norway Cup)
    • Ages: 11-18 yr
    • n= 25,000 youth
    • 2987 matches
    • 1343 injuries
    • Girls had a higher injury rate
      • Reason - lower skill development and training
      • Greater injury rate during final rounds
      • However, most injuries are minor
sport participation controversies soccer23
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
  • Heading the ball in soccer can result in
    • Headaches
      • 49% of players complained after heading a ball
    • Mild to severe deficits in attention
    • Problems with concentration
    • Mild to severe deficits in memory
sport participation controversies soccer24
Common injury site

Thigh

Ankle

Foot

Torso

Head & neck

Type of injury

Contusions

Muscle strains

Sprains

Fractures

Heat illness

Concussions

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
sport participation controversies soccer25
Cause of injury

Person-to person contact

43%

Repetitive overload

20.4%

Contact with ground

17.5%

Contact with goal post, etc.

6.5%

Effect of injury

Missed one game

38.5%

Missed all remaining games

19.3%

Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
sport participation controversies soccer26
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Soccer
  • How can soccer injuries be reduced?
    • Closer officiating
    • Pregame warnings for playing tactics (take downs, hacking)
    • Coaching within the spirit of the rules
    • Protective padding for players and goal posts
    • Remove all sideline objects (chairs, water coolers, etc.)
sport participation controversies downhill skiing
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing
  • Classified as a limited contact/impact sport
  • Injury occurs due to contact with ground or stationary object
    • Contact usually occurs at a high velocity
  • Girls are more prone to injury than boys
  • Injury rate increases up to age 13 yr of age
  • Injury rate levels off between age 13 and 15 yr
sport participation controversies downhill skiing28
Sport Participation: Controversies ~ Downhill Skiing
  • Out of 3456 participants, 423 injuries reported
  • Most of the injuries occurred in 12 and 13 year olds
  • Common injuries
    • 51.0% ~ sprains
    • 11.1% ~ fractures

(Garrick & Requa, 1979)

sport participation controversies in line skating
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ In-line Skating
  • Fastest growing recreational sport in the US
  • Excessive speed is the main cause for injury (speeds of 30 mph are not uncommon)
  • 35% of all falls result in injury
  • 60% of all injury occurs in youth between 10 and 14 years of age
sport participation controversies in line skating30
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ In-line Skating
  • Prevention of injuries
    • Players should wear all protective gear available to them
      • Wrist guards
      • Elbow pads
      • Knee pads
      • Helmet
  • Often, children do not use protective equipment because discomfort, cost, and unsightly appearance
sport participation controversies overuse injuries
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries
  • Youth are specializing in sport at earlier ages which involves year round training
  • Overuse injuries occur as a result of placing the body under repeated stress over a long period of time
  • Common sites: epiphyseal plates, cartilage of the apophyses, articular cartilage, stress fractures
slide32
Little Hercules

Sandrak Website

slide33
“Ironically, there are child labor laws in many countries that forbid stereotype work movements and excessive loading…but these same restrictions do not apply to children’s sports”
sport participation controversies overuse injuries34
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries
  • Traction apophyses injuries
    • Osgood-Schlatter disease
      • Insertion of the patellar tendon at the tibial tubercle
    • Sever’s disease
      • Insertion of the Achilles tendon into the calcaneous
  • Both injuries occur because the skeleton is growing faster than soft tissue elongation
sport participation controversies overuse injuries35
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries
  • Little League elbow
    • Repeated stress to the medial and lateral structures of the elbow
  • Rule changes are designed to protect the young pitcher
    • T-ball, ball is not pitched to the batter
    • Some leagues no longer allow the curve ball
    • Limit the number of innings/wk that a young player may pitch
sport participation controversies overuse injuries36
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Overuse Injuries
  • Significant increase in Runner’s knee injuries
    • Inappropriate tracking of the kneecap
sport participation controversies avoidable
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Avoidable?
  • Make sure young athletes have been properly conditioned
  • Avoid overtraining
  • Provide qualified adult supervision
  • Change rules to create a safe environment
  • Match competitors according to body size and weight
sport participation controversies avoidable38
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Avoidable?
  • Require use of appropriate safety equipment
  • Do not allow an injured child to return to competition until the injury has been fully rehabilitated
  • Do not allow children to partake in questionable practices designed to create a competitive edge
  • Use coaches who are certified
  • National Center for Sports Safety
    • Online certification course
sport participation controversies nutrition
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Nutrition
  • Child’s appetite should dictate need
  • The practice of fasting (wrestling) and quick weight gain (football) should be avoided
  • Vitamin supplements are not necessary when the young athlete is eating a balanced meal
sport participation controversies making weight
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Making Weight
  • Some adults have used unacceptable practices to give their child a competitive edge
    • Exercising in a sauna
    • Not letting child drink water
    • Not allowing child to swallow spit
    • Administering diuretics
    • Exercising in a rubber suit
    • Fasting
sport participation controversies making weight41
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Making Weight

Dangers of rapid dehydration

  • Cells, urine output, blood volume and sweating mechanisms do not function properly
  • 3% weight loss will decrease physical performance
  • 5% weight loss can lead to heat exhaustion
  • 7% weight loss can lead to hallucinations
  • 10% weight loss can lead to heat stroke and circulatory collapse
sport participation controversies42
Sport Participation: Controversies
  • Psychological issues
    • Stress
      • Unpleasant emotional state
    • Reducing competitive stress
  • Are young athletes being exposed to too much competitive stress?
sport participation controversies stress
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Stress

Model depicting the development of stress and potential behavioral outcomes

Consequences

Withdraw and try a new

sport; Withdraw

permanently

Situation

Individual views outcome as important

Emotional Response

Unfavorable appraisal

leads to physiological

and cognitive stress

Appraisal

Individual evaluates his/her

ability to meet the demands

of the situation

Passer, 1982

sport participation controversies another viewpoint
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Another Viewpoint
  • Youth sport participation is not the only stress encountered in the daily life of a young person
  • Precompetitive state anxiety
    • Study by Simon & Marten (1979)
    • 468 children in youth sports
    • 281 children who competed in a physical education softball game, school test, group competition in band, and band solo competition
sport participation controversies state anxiety
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ State Anxiety

Result: note the greatest level of precompetitive state anxiety is for band solo students

Children’s precompetitive state anxiety in 11 sport activities.

The precompetitive state anxiety scale ranges from 10-30.

sport participation controversies reducing stress
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Reducing Stress
  • Change something about the sport so that success occurs more often than failure
    • T-ball uses stationary batting tee instead of a pitcher
  • Skill training instills confidence
    • More time should be spent on teaching and less time on scrimmaging
sport participation controversies reducing stress47
Sport Participation:Controversies ~ Reducing Stress
  • Children who perceive themselves as competent are less threatened and perform better
  • Winning/losing should be placed in perspective
    • Child may feel that he/she has disappointed parents or coach
  • Help child set realistic goals
youth sport coaching
Youth Sport Coaching
  • Who’s coaching our children?
    • mostly volunteers
      • 90% lack the necessary formal preparation to coach
    • 9 out of 10 volunteer coaches are men
  • Safe on First
    • An organization designed to run background checks on those who coach children in US
    • Sex offenders, criminal record, etc.
youth sport coaching49
Youth Sport Coaching
  • Why do people volunteer?
    • Involvement of coach's child in league
    • Personal enjoyment
    • Skill development of players
    • Character development of players
    • Personal challenge
youth sport coaching education
Youth Sport Coaching - Education
  • The annual turnover rate for coaches is 50%
  • There is a rise in the number of lawsuits directed toward youth sport coaches and organizations because of alleged negligence during practices and games
youth sport coaching education51
Youth Sport Coaching - Education
  • The National Standards for Athletic Coaches (US)
  • National Coaching Certification Program (Canada)
  • Technological advances now allow educators to reach more potential youth sport coaches to obtain coaching education and certification
youth sport coaching52
Youth Sport Coaching
  • Arguments against mandatory coaching certification
    • Due to the increase in participation, more sport offerings are required, and therefore, additional coaches are needed
    • Demand for coaches exceeds supply
      • Programs may have to be cut
    • Certification process is expensive
parental education curbing violence
Parental Education:Curbing Violence
  • There has been a significant increase in violent behavior from parents during the last 15 years
    • Occurrences range from attacks to murder
parental education curbing violence55
Parental Education:Curbing Violence
  • Organizations are requiring parental education
    • Sportsmanship training
    • Parents Association for Youth Sports (PAYS)
  • Parent beats a volunteer coach to death in front of his children after a youth ice hockey game for ten year olds
slide57
Correlates of PA in youth
  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide58

Sex

Family Income

Age

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide59

Sex

Health Behaviour in School-aged Children Study (WHO, 2002)

slide60

Family Income

Estabrooks & Gyurcsik (2000)

slide62

Enjoyment

Self-efficacy

Self-esteem

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide63

Peers

Family

Coaches/Others

Cultural constraints

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide64

Sidewalks

Parks

Local Clubs/Teams

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide65

Cost

Pollution

Bike Lanes

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide66

Crime/Violence

Lighting

Traffic

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide67

Friendly

Trees/Flowers

Traffic

Correlates of PA in youth

  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide68
Correlates of PA in youth
  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics
slide69
Correlates of PA in youth
  • Individual
    • Demographic factors
    • Psychological factors
    • Social factors
  • Environmental
    • Opportunity
    • Accessibility
    • Safety
    • Aesthetics

Built Environment