GMO* and Food Safety. Dr. Ted Labuza Department of Food Science and Nutrition Univ. Of Minnesota St Paul 55108 firstname.lastname@example.org http://fscn.che.umn.edu/Ted_Labuza/tpl.html. * Frankenfoods ???. Safety issues over “GMO”. Classic toxicity testing Substantial equivalence
Dr. Ted Labuza
Department of Food Science and Nutrition
Univ. Of Minnesota
St Paul 55108
* Frankenfoods ???
example - solanine in potatoes
* meaning naturally present
So could apply to a GMO
What level of toxicant is tolerable, if any?
What level of toxicant is detectable ?
No regulation shall issue if a fair evaluation before the Secretary (FDA)
(a) fails to establish that the proposed use shall be safe provided that no additive shall be deemed safe it it is found to induce cancer when ingested by man or animal or if it is found after tests which are appropriate for their evaluation of the safety of food additives to induce cancer in man or animals
Maryanski, J. FDA’s policy for Foods Developed from Biotechnology in Genetically Modified Foods: Safety Issues Engle et al Eds. ACS Symposium Series # 605 1995 pgs 12-22
Milk - Recombinant BST or rBGH
Neither GRAS nor Food Additive rather
It is an approved New Animal Drug
First, food safety and labeling-the editorial says let's state once and for all that safety and labeling standards for foods, food ingredients, and feeds should be applied regardless of the techniques used in their production and manufacture. There is widespread Expert consensus about this (in fact, genetic engineering may be safer/more precise than conventional breeding), so why is it even discussed anymore?Foods should continue to be assessed on the basis of substantial equivalence, with labeling required only for (GM) foods that differ significantly in composition or nutritional value from their conventional counterparts.
Concern for transgenic introduction of allergenic protein
1. 10 to 70 KDa
2. Resistant to digestion
3. Stable to heat processing
4. Similar to amino acid homology in binding sites
and risk assessment measures this.
1. A laboratory study by Cornell University entomologists indicated that Bt-corn pollen can kill 44% of Monarch butterflies
2. British scientist reports that GM potatoes stunt rats’ growth and damage their immune system
Outrage is everything about a risk that is relevant, EXCEPT how likely it is to hurt you.
Outrage usually involves people’s concerns and fears about a risk rather than scientific evidence
For GM Foods:
RISK = HAZARD + OUTRAGE
Knowledge does not necessarily lessen consumer concerns.
need for specific ELISA
not available for most allergens except peanuts and egg (Neogen)
Starlink corn with Cry9C based Bt toxin protein
63FR28258 Bacillus Thuringiensis Subspecies tolworthi Cry9C Protein and the Genetic Material Necessary for its Production in Corn;
Exemption from the Requirement of a Tolerance May 22, 1998
as does Safeway product made by Kraft
Adventis CropScience (NC) is financially responsible for the screw-up and must pay for it. Not the farmers fault.
corn or 9 million bushels
Fred Rosenberger, who grew 40 acres of StarLink corn in Rineyville, Ky.,this year, was quoted as saying, "We never found out until two weeks ago,"adding that because he stored the corn before realizing that it should be segregated, some 8,000 bushels of StarLink corn were mixed in with about 42,000 bushels of other varieties. Mr. Rosenberger said that some neighbors,whom he declined to name, had unwittingly shipped it to local elevators.
Duane Adams, who farms 1,500 acres in Cosmos, Minn., and is vice president of the Minnesota Corn Growers Association, was cited as saying that none of the papers that came with StarLink seed he purchased from Garst last spring carried a warning about the crop's limited use or the notice that it should be planted at least 660 feet from any other corn.
"I'm sick of it," Mr. Smith said, vowing to never plant another
Kroger and Albertsons remove cereal and tacos
Mission Foods recalls all Tacos (largest US maker)
Azteca Milling will take back all yellow 2 corn flour
ConAgra stops operations at Kansas corn flour mill - will not disclose customers
Nov 3 FDA announces over 300 products
with potential risk
Green Party (NZ) health spokeswoman Sue Kedgley was cited as saying on Monday (Oct 30)
that Starlink corn was feared to cause allergic reactions and digestion problems in some humans, adding, "Unless the government sets up an immediate program to randomly monitor genetically engineered ingredients in our food
supply, it cannot guarantee consumers that their food is safe."
process of protocols to be followed, Unfortunately people didn’t handle things correctly.”