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Foodborne Illness Can Cause More than a Stomach Ache!. MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines. Alice Henneman, MS, RD University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County. Joyce Jensen, CFSP Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Foodborne Illness Can Cause

More than a Stomach Ache!

MyPyramid Food Safety Guidelines

slide2
Alice Henneman, MS, RD

University of Nebraska-Lincoln Extension in Lancaster County

Joyce Jensen, CFSP

Lincoln-Lancaster County Health Dept.

Download this PowerPoint athttp://lancaster.unl.edu/food/mypyramid-foodsafety.shtml

Updated slightly January 2007

acknowledgments
Acknowledgments
  • Slide set is based on information provided by:
    • United States Department of Agriculture
    • United States Department of Health & Human Services
  • For more information, visit:
    • http://www.mypyramid.gov
    • http://www.fsis.usda.gov
    • http://www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines
estimates of foodborne illnesses in the u s each year
Estimates of foodborne illnesses in the U.S. each year:

76 million peoplebecome ill

5,000 people die

signs and symptoms
Signs and symptoms

Diarrhea

Fever

Upset stomach

Dehydration(sometimes severe)

Vomiting

even if tasting would tell why risk getting sick
Even IF tasting would tell … Why risk getting sick?

A “tiny taste” may not protect you …

as few as 10 bacteria could cause some foodborne illnesses!

why gamble with your health
Why gamble with your health?

It takes about ½ hourto 6 weeks to become ill from unsafe foods.

You may become sick later even if you feel OK after eating.

why risk other people s health
Why risk other people’s health?

Some people have a greater risk for foodborne illnesses. A food you safelyeat might make others sick.

Is the food safefor everyone at the table?

people with a higher risk of foodborne illness
People with a higher risk of foodborne illness

Infants

Young children andolder adults

Pregnantwomen

People with weakened immunesystems and individuals withcertain chronic diseases

be a winner
Be a winner!

Increase your odds of preventing a foodborne illness in YOUR HOME!

key recommendations for food safety
“Key recommendations”for food safety

The 2005 USDA Dietary Guidelines give five“Key Recommendations” for food safety.

Source: http://www.health.gov/dietaryguidelines/dga2005/recommendations.htm

slide14

Recommendation 1:CLEAN

Washhands and food-contact surfaces.

slide15

Wash your hands!

Handwashing is the most effective way to stop the spread of illness.

how to wash hands
How to wash hands
  • Wet hands with WARM water.
  • Soap and scrub for 20 seconds.
  • Rinse under clean, running water.
  • Dry completely using a clean cloth or paper towel.
slide17

Sneezing, blowing nose & coughing

Handling pets

Using bathroom orchanging diapers

AND before ...

Touching a cut or open sore

Handling food

Wash hands after …

clean during food preparation
Clean during food preparation

Wash cutting boards, knives, utensils and counter tops in hot soapy water after preparing each food and before going on to the next.

avoid spreading bacteria
Avoid spreading bacteria
  • Use paper towels or clean cloths to wipeup kitchen surfacesor spills.
  • Wash cloths often in the hot cycle of your washing machine and dry in a hot dryer.
dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
Dirty dishcloths spread bacteria
  • Wet or damp dishcloths are ideal environments for bacterial growth.
  • Have a good supplyof dishcloths to avoid reusing them before laundry day.

There are more germs in the average kitchen than the bathroom. Sponges and dishcloths are worst offenders.~research by Dr. Charles Gerba

recommendation 2 separate
Recommendation 2: SEPARATE

Separateraw, cooked, and ready-to-eat foods while shopping, preparing or storing foods.

use different cutting boards

… and a separate one for fresh produce.

Use different cutting boards

Use one cutting boardfor raw meat, poultry and seafood …

slide23

When groovy isn’t a good thing

Replace cutting boards if theybecome excessively worn or develop hard-to-clean grooves.

use clean plates
Use clean plates

NEVER serve foods on a plate that previously held raw meat, poultry or seafood unless the plate has first been washed in hot, soapy water.

recommendation 3 cook
Recommendation 3: COOK

Cook foods to a safe temperature to kill microorganisms.

chicken and turkey
Chicken and turkey

Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legsand thighs, etc.) to165°F.

pork egg dishes hamburger ground meats
Pork, egg dishes, hamburger & ground meats

Cook pork, egg dishes, hamburger and ground meats to 160°F.Cook ground poultry to 165°F.

slide29

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm,not runny.

You can’t stick a thermometer into a scrambled or fried egg.

How do you know when they’re done?

leftovers
Leftovers

Reheat leftovers until a temperature of165°F is reached throughout the food.

beef lamb veal steaks
Beef, lamb & veal steaks

Cook beef, lamb and vealsteaksand roasts to 160°F for medium doneness (145°F for medium rare).

chicken and turkey1
Chicken and turkey

Cook chicken and turkey (both whole birds and poultry parts, such as wings, breasts, legsand thighs, etc.) to165°F.

slide34
The ONLY way to know food has been cooked to a safe internal temperature is to use a food thermometer!
which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature
Which ground beef patty is cooked to a safe internal temperature?

A

B

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Servicehttp://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

slide36

A

B

This is NOT a safely cooked hamburger. Though brown inside, it’s undercooked. Research shows some ground beef patties look done at internal temperatures as low as 135°F.

This IS a safely cooked hamburger, cooked to an internal temperature of 160°F, even though it's pink inside.

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature
1 out of 4 hamburgers turns brown before it has been cooked to a safe internal temperature

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.pueblo.gsa.gov/cic_text/food/therm/researchfs.htm

types of food thermometers

dial instant-read

digital instant-read

dial oven-safe

disposable temperature

indicators

oven probe with cord

thermometer forkcombination

Types of food thermometers
digital instant read
DIGITAL instant-read
  • Reads in 10 seconds
  • Place at least ½ inch deep (or asdirected by manufacturer)
  • Gives fast reading
  • Can measure temperature in thin and thick foods
  • Not designed to remain in food while it's cooking
  • Check internal temperature of food near the end of cooking time
  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions
  • Available in "kitchen" stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

dial instant read
DIAL instant-read
  • Reads in 15-20 seconds
  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food
  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups
  • Temperature is averaged along probe, from tip to 2-3 inches up the stem
  • Cannot measure thin foods unless inserted sideways
  • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking
  • Use to check the internal temperature of a food at the end of cooking time
  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions
  • Readily available in stores

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

dial oven safe
Dial oven-safe
  • Reads in 1-2 minutes
  • Place 2-2½ inches deep in thickest part of food
  • Can be used in roasts, casseroles, and soups
  • Not appropriate for thin foods
  • Can remain in food while it's cooking
  • Heat conduction of metal stem can cause false high reading
  • Some models can be calibrated; check manufacturer's instructions

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

oven probe with cord
Oven probe with cord
  • Can be used in most foods
  • Can also be used outside the oven
  • Designed to remain in the food while it is cooking in oven or in covered pot
  • Base unit sits on stovetop or counter
  • Cannot be calibrated

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

disposable temperature indicators single use
Disposable temperature indicators (Single-use)
  • Reads in 5 -10 seconds
  • Place approximately ½ inch deep (follow manufacturer's directions)
  • Designed to be used only once
  • Designed for specific temperature ranges
  • Should only be used with food for which they are intended
  • Temperature-sensitive material changes color when the desired temperature is reached

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

thermometer fork combination
Thermometer-fork combination
  • Reads in 2-10 seconds
  • Place at least ¼ inch deep in thickest part of food
  • Can be used in most foods
  • Not designed to remain in food while it is cooking
  • Sensor in tine of fork must be fully inserted
  • Check internal temperature of food near end of cooking time
  • Cannot be calibrated
  • Convenient for grilling

Source: United States Department of Agriculture/Food Safety & Inspection Service http://www.fsis.usda.gov/food_safety_education/Types_of_Food_Thermometers/index.asp

placing a food thermometer
Placing a food thermometer
  • Place in the thickest part of food.
  • Do NOT touch bone, fat, or gristle.
  • Begin checking temperature toward the end of cooking, but before the food is expected to be "done."
  • For irregularly shaped food – such as with a beef roast – check the temperature in several places.
  • Clean thermometer with hot soapy water before and after each use!
using a thermometer in thinner foods
Using a thermometer in thinner foods

For thinner foods such as meat patties, pork chops and chicken breasts, a DIGITAL instant-read food thermometer should be used if possible– as it doesn’t have to be inserted as far as a DIAL instant-read thermometer.

Disposable temperature indicators are another option.

For really thin foods, it maybe necessary to inserta digital thermometer or disposable temperatureindicator at an angle.

using a thermometer in thinner foods1
Using a thermometer in thinner foods

For an “instant-read” DIAL food thermometer, insert the probe in the side of the food so the entire sensing area (usually 2–3 inches) is positioned through the center of the food.

When grilling or frying, to avoid burning fingers, it may be helpful to remove the food from the heat source before inserting the thermometer.

recommendation 4 chill
Recommendation 4: CHILL

Chill (refrigerate) perishable foods promptly and defrost foods properly.

the two hour rule
The TWO-hour rule

Refrigerate perishable foods so TOTAL time at room temperature is less than TWO hours or only ONE hour when temperature is above 90°F.

Perishable foods include:

  • Meat, poultry, fish, eggs, tofu
  • Dairy products
  • Pasta, rice, cooked vegetables
  • Fresh, peeled/cut fruits andvegetables
danger zone
DANGER ZONE

Bacteria multiplyrapidly between 40 & 140°F

a multiplication quiz
A multiplication quiz

Bacteria numbers can double in 20 minutes!

How many bacteria will grow from 1 BACTERIAleft at room temperature 7 hours?

answer 2 097 152
Answer: 2,097,152!

Refrigerate perishable foods within TWO hours.

how to be cool part 1
How to be cool – part 1
  • Cool food in shallow containers. Limit depth of food to 2 inches or less.
  • Place very hotfoods on a rack atroom temperaturefor about 20minutes beforerefrigeration.
how to be cool part 2
How to be cool – part 2

It’s OK to refrigerate foods while they’re still warm.

Leave container cover slightly cracked until the food has cooled.

recommended refrigerator freezer temperatures
Recommended refrigerator & freezer temperatures
  • Set refrigerator at 40°F or below.
  • Set freezer at0°F.
monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures
Monitor refrigerator and freezer temperatures
  • Place thermometer in the front of refrigerator/freezer in an easy-to-read location.
  • Check temperature regularly – at least weekly.
the thaw law
The THAW LAW
  • Plan ahead to defrost foods.
  • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
when to leave your leftovers
When to leave your leftovers
  • Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.
  • If in doubt, toss it out!
time to toss
Time to toss …

"If it walks out, let it go!"

~ seen on a refrigerator magnet

recommendation 5 avoid
Recommendation 5: AVOID...
  • Raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products
  • Raw or partially cooked eggs and foods containing raw eggs
  • Raw and undercooked meat and poultry
  • Unpasteurized juices
  • Raw sprouts

Most at risk are infants, young children, pregnant women, older adults and theimmunocompromised.

slide62

Food safety recommendationsfor food groups

The 2005 MyPyramid gives specificfood safety recommendationsfor each food group.

cleaning fruits vegetables
Cleaning fruits & vegetables
  • Remove and discard outer leaves.
  • Rinse under clean, running water just before preparingor eating.
  • Rub briskly – scrubbing witha clean brush or hands – to remove dirt and surface microorganisms.
  • Don’t use soap or detergent.
cleaning fruits vegetables1
Cleaning fruits & vegetables
  • After washing, dry with a clean cloth or paper towel.
  • Moisture left on produce may promote survival and growth of microorganisms. Drying is critical if food won’t be eaten or cooked right away.
  • Cut away bruised anddamaged areas.
wash this produce too
Wash this produce, too!

Bacteria on the outside of fruits can be transferred to the inside when fruit is peeled or cut.

Wash fruits – such as cantaloupe and other melons – under running water.

handling fruits vegetables
Handling fruits & vegetables
  • Cover and refrigerate cut/peeled fruits and vegetables.
  • TOSS cut/peeled fresh produce if left at room temperature longer than TWO hours.
separate fruits vegetables from other foods
Separate fruits & vegetablesfrom other foods

Keep fruits and vegetables separate from raw meat, poultry and seafood while shopping, preparingor storing them.

read labels
Read labels

Read labels on bagged produce to determine if it is ready-to-eat.

Ready-to-eat, prewashed, bagged produce can be used without further washing if kept refrigerated and usedby the “use-by” date.

dairy do s and don ts
Dairy do’s and don’ts
  • Avoid raw (unpasteurized) milk or milk products such as some soft cheeses.
  • Refrigerate dairy foods promptly. Discard dairy foods left at room temperature for more than two hours – even if they look and smell good.

Do NOT drink milkdirectly from the carton.

avoid washing raw meat poultry
Avoid washing raw meat & poultry

Do NOT wash raw meatand poultry. Washingis not necessary.

Washing increases the dangerof cross-contamination, spreading bacteria present on the surface of meat and poultry to ready-to-eat foods, kitchen utensils, and counter surfaces.

refrigerator storage
Refrigerator storage

Store raw meat, poultry and seafood on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator so juices don’t drip onto other foods.

cook to safe temperatures
Cook to safe temperatures

Avoid raw or partially cooked eggs or foods containing raw eggs and raw/undercooked meat and poultry.

Scrambled, poached, fried and hard-cooked eggs are safe when cooked so both yolks and whites are firm, not runny.

signs of safely cooked fish
Signs of safely cooked fish
  • Fin fish: Slip point of sharp knife into flesh; pull aside. Edges should be opaque, the center slightly translucent with flakes beginning to separate. Let stand 3 to 4 minutes to finish cooking. 
  • Shrimp, lobsters & crab: Turn red and flesh becomes pearly opaque. 
  • Scallops: Turn milky white or opaque and firm. 
  • Clams, mussels & oysters: Watch for their shells opening to know they’re done. Toss those that stay closed.

The US Food & Drug Administration recommends cooking most seafood to an internal temperature of 145 degrees F for 15 seconds.

Source: United States Food & Drug Administrationhttp://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/1997/797_home.html

specific group recommendations
Specific group recommendations

These groups should avoid some types of fishand eat types lower in mercury:

  • Pregnant women and those who may become pregnant
  • Nursing mothers
  • Young children

For more information: http://www.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/admehg3.html or call 1-888-SAFEFOOD.

specific group recommendations1
Specific group recommendations

Pregnant women, older adults, and the immunocompromisedshould only eat deli meats and frankfurters that have been reheated to steaming hot to avoid the risk of listeriosis.

slide79

Let's play ...

Keep

or

Toss

should you keep or toss
Should you keep or toss …

Pizza left on the counter overnight?

toss it out
Toss it out!

Even if you reheat pizza left on the counter overnight, some bacteria can form a heat resistant toxin that cooking won’t destroy.

should you keep or toss1
Should you keep or toss …

Hamburger thawed on the kitchen counter?

toss it out1
Tossit out!
  • As with pizza left out more than TWO hours, bacteria may have formed heat-resistant toxins.
  • The best way to thaw perishable foods is in the refrigerator.
  • Thaw packages of meat, poultry and seafood ona plate on the bottom shelfof the refrigerator to preventtheir juices from dripping on other foods.
should you keep or toss2
Should you keep or toss …

Perishable food left out from the noon meal untilthe evening meal?

toss it out2
Toss it out!

Perishable foods – such as meats, gravy and cooked vegetables – should be refrigerated within TWO hours.

should you keep or toss3
Should you keep or toss …

Pumpkin pie stored at room temperature overnight?

toss it out3
Toss it out!
  • Foods with eggs, milk, and a high moisture content – such as pumpkin pie – must be refrigerated.
  • Avoid keeping pumpkin pie at room temperature more than TWO hours, includingtime after baking ANDbefore being served.
  • Some commercial pumpkin pies – purchased at room temperature – must later be refrigerated. Check label for storage requirements; don’t buy them if label directions are unclear or missing.
should you keep or toss4
Should you keep or toss …

Cut/peeled fruits and vegetables at room temperature for over TWO hours?

toss it out4
Toss it out!
  • Once you have cut through the protective skin of fruits and vegetables, bacteria can enter.
  • Refrigerate cut or peeled fruits and vegetables within TWO hours.
should you keep or toss5
Should you keep or toss …

Leftovers in the refrigerator forover a week?

toss it out5
Toss it out!
  • Refrigerated leftovers may become unsafe within 3 to 4 days.
  • You can’t always see or smell if a food is unsafe. It may be unsafe to taste a food.
should you keep or toss6
Should you keep or toss …

A FULLpot of chicken soup stored in the refrigerator while still hot?

can you guess
…(can you guess?)

How long would it take an 8-inch stock pot of steaming chicken soup to cool to a safe temperature in your refrigerator?

would you believe 24 hours
Would you believe … 24 hours!

Remember: Transfer hot foodsto shallow containers to speed cooling.

TOSS IT OUT!

should you keep or toss7
Should you keep or toss …

A turkey kept in your freezer for five years?

you decide
You decide!

Food kept frozen at 0°F is still safe to eat. However, it may not taste as good.

To assure best flavor, eat afrozen turkey within a year.

remember
Remember:

When in doubt...