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FOCUS and AFFIXES. www.seasite.niu.edu/tagalog Tagalog Grammar - VERBAL FOCUS. Actor Focus Verbal affixes. Indicate that the focus (actor) of the sentence is doing the action of the verb The -UM- Verb The MAG- Verb The MA- Verb. The –UM Verbs.

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Focus and affixes l.jpg

FOCUS and AFFIXES

www.seasite.niu.edu/tagalog

Tagalog Grammar - VERBAL FOCUS


Actor focus verbal affixes l.jpg
Actor Focus Verbal affixes

  • Indicate that the focus (actor) of the sentence is doing the action of the verb

  • The -UM- Verb

  • The MAG- Verb

  • The MA- Verb


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The –UM Verbs

This verb is formed by attaching the infix -UM- to the verb root. The -UM- affix always comes right before the first vowel of the root word. (samples are in the past tense/perfective aspect)

  • Kumain (kain)

  • Umalis (alis)

  • Tumakbo (takbo)

  • Pumunta (punta)


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A major affix that is usually found in verbs denoting casual action and/or action not involving movement of an object external to the actor.

Designates actor’s movement from one place to another

Does not occur with roots/base words beginning with m or w


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Sample sentences action and/or action not involving movement of an object external to the actor.

  • Kumain siya kagabi.

  • Pumunta si Ate Marvs sa Nevada, Arizona, at California noong Disyembre.

  • Umalis ang tatay kanina.


Your sample sentences l.jpg
Your Sample Sentences action and/or action not involving movement of an object external to the actor.


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Mag- Verbs action and/or action not involving movement of an object external to the actor.

These verbs are formed by attaching the prefix MAG- to the verb root. Because MAG- is a prefix, it is always attached to the front of the word.

Magbigay (bigay) – to give

Magluto (luto) – to cook

Maglaro (laro) – to play

Maghanda (handa) – to prepare


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A major actor focus affix that connotes deliberate action involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

Used in verbalization of borrowed words

magbus

magkompyuter

magbasketbol


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Sample Sentences (Past/Perfective) involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Nagbasketbol siya kapahon.

  • Nagbigay si Mila ng mga regalo sa mga bata noong Pasko.

  • Nagluto ang nanay ng pansit kagabi.


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Sample verbs that will take both um and mag affixes involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Magbasa – bumasa

  • Magsulat – sumulat

  • Magsayaw – sumayaw


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Your Sample Sentences involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.


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Ma Verbs involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • This is verb that is used as an actor affix and in rare instances as an object affix.

  • It is also a prefix.

    • Matulog – tulog – to sleep

    • Maligo – ligo – to bathe

    • Matuto – tuto - to learn

    • Makinig – kinig – to listen

    • Mahuli – huli – to be late

    • Nanood – nood – to view or to watch


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  • Used with inactive verbs involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • As an Object affix (very rare)

    • Makita – kita – to see

      • Nakita niya si Ben. (past) He/She saw Ben.

    • Mahalata – halata – to notice

      • Nahalata ni Ben na galit ang tatay. Ben noticed that father is angry.


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Your Sample Sentences involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.


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Objects Focus Verbal Affixes involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

These affixes indicate that the focus of the sentence is the object (receiver of the action).

I verbs

In verbs

An Verbs


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I- Affix involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Often denotes action affecting the position of the goal but not causing a change in its structure.

  • This is usually the object affix counterpart of mag- verbs


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  • Itapon – to throw involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Iuwi – to take home

  • Iakyat – to bring up/to take up

  • Ialok – to offer

  • Ilabas – to take out


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Command form involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Itapon mo ang basura sa labas.

  • Iuwi ninyo ang ulam para kay nanay.

  • Ilabas mo ang daing kasi mabaho.


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Your Sample Sentences involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.


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-In verbal affix involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Denotes action radically affecting the goal/object such as those causing the change in its structure

  • It is a suffix; i.e. it is added at the end of the root.

  • Usually it is the object counterpart of –um.

    • Inumin – inom – to drink

    • Lutuin – luto – to drink

    • Tapusin – tapos – to finish

      *** in suffixation o changes to u


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Cooking verbs involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Tadtarin – tadtad – to chop

  • Hiwain – hiwa – to slice

  • Haluin – halo – to mix


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Command Form involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Haluin mo ang ulam.

  • Inumin ninyo ang gatas sa mesa.

  • Tapusin mo ang “homework” sa Tagalog.

  • Lutuin mo ang isda.


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Your Sample Sentences involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.


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-An Affix involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

  • Typically denotes actions affecting the surface or appearance of the goal but not causing a change of its structure

  • It is a suffix

  • Denote movement in relation to a goal

  • Denote action typically involving a human goal

  • Used in a few pseudo-verbs


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  • Affecting the appearance but not causing change involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

    • Hugasan – hugas – to wash

    • Walisan – walis – to sweep

    • Bukasan/buksan – bukas – to open

    • Sarahan/ sarhan – sara – to close

      *** han is used if final letter of the root is a vowel a


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  • Movement in relation to a goal involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

    • Abutan – abot – to pass something to

    • Dalahan/dalhan – dala – to bring something to

    • Lapitan – lapit – to approach someone

    • Puntahan – punta – to go to

    • Upuan – upo – to sit down on


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  • Action involving a human/animate goal involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

    • Halikan – halik – to kiss

    • Ngitian – ngiti- to smile at

    • Tulungan – tulong – to help


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Your sample sentences: involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.