focus and affixes n.
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FOCUS and AFFIXES. Tagalog Grammar - VERBAL FOCUS. Actor Focus Verbal affixes. Indicate that the focus (actor) of the sentence is doing the action of the verb The -UM- Verb The MAG- Verb The MA- Verb. The –UM Verbs.

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focus and affixes


Tagalog Grammar - VERBAL FOCUS

actor focus verbal affixes
Actor Focus Verbal affixes
  • Indicate that the focus (actor) of the sentence is doing the action of the verb
  • The -UM- Verb
  • The MAG- Verb
  • The MA- Verb
the um verbs
The –UM Verbs

This verb is formed by attaching the infix -UM- to the verb root. The -UM- affix always comes right before the first vowel of the root word. (samples are in the past tense/perfective aspect)

  • Kumain (kain)
  • Umalis (alis)
  • Tumakbo (takbo)
  • Pumunta (punta)
A major affix that is usually found in verbs denoting casual action and/or action not involving movement of an object external to the actor.

Designates actor’s movement from one place to another

Does not occur with roots/base words beginning with m or w

sample sentences
Sample sentences
  • Kumain siya kagabi.
  • Pumunta si Ate Marvs sa Nevada, Arizona, at California noong Disyembre.
  • Umalis ang tatay kanina.
mag verbs
Mag- Verbs

These verbs are formed by attaching the prefix MAG- to the verb root. Because MAG- is a prefix, it is always attached to the front of the word.

Magbigay (bigay) – to give

Magluto (luto) – to cook

Maglaro (laro) – to play

Maghanda (handa) – to prepare

A major actor focus affix that connotes deliberate action involving movement of an object external to the actor. In a sentence, this verb requires a object or ng phrase.

Used in verbalization of borrowed words




sample sentences past perfective
Sample Sentences (Past/Perfective)
  • Nagbasketbol siya kapahon.
  • Nagbigay si Mila ng mga regalo sa mga bata noong Pasko.
  • Nagluto ang nanay ng pansit kagabi.
sample verbs that will take both um and mag affixes
Sample verbs that will take both um and mag affixes
  • Magbasa – bumasa
  • Magsulat – sumulat
  • Magsayaw – sumayaw
ma verbs
Ma Verbs
  • This is verb that is used as an actor affix and in rare instances as an object affix.
  • It is also a prefix.
    • Matulog – tulog – to sleep
    • Maligo – ligo – to bathe
    • Matuto – tuto - to learn
    • Makinig – kinig – to listen
    • Mahuli – huli – to be late
    • Nanood – nood – to view or to watch
Used with inactive verbs
  • As an Object affix (very rare)
    • Makita – kita – to see
      • Nakita niya si Ben. (past) He/She saw Ben.
    • Mahalata – halata – to notice
      • Nahalata ni Ben na galit ang tatay. Ben noticed that father is angry.
objects focus verbal affixes
Objects Focus Verbal Affixes

These affixes indicate that the focus of the sentence is the object (receiver of the action).

I verbs

In verbs

An Verbs

i affix
I- Affix
  • Often denotes action affecting the position of the goal but not causing a change in its structure.
  • This is usually the object affix counterpart of mag- verbs
Itapon – to throw
  • Iuwi – to take home
  • Iakyat – to bring up/to take up
  • Ialok – to offer
  • Ilabas – to take out
command form
Command form
  • Itapon mo ang basura sa labas.
  • Iuwi ninyo ang ulam para kay nanay.
  • Ilabas mo ang daing kasi mabaho.
in verbal affix
-In verbal affix
  • Denotes action radically affecting the goal/object such as those causing the change in its structure
  • It is a suffix; i.e. it is added at the end of the root.
  • Usually it is the object counterpart of –um.
    • Inumin – inom – to drink
    • Lutuin – luto – to drink
    • Tapusin – tapos – to finish

*** in suffixation o changes to u

cooking verbs
Cooking verbs
  • Tadtarin – tadtad – to chop
  • Hiwain – hiwa – to slice
  • Haluin – halo – to mix
command form1
Command Form
  • Haluin mo ang ulam.
  • Inumin ninyo ang gatas sa mesa.
  • Tapusin mo ang “homework” sa Tagalog.
  • Lutuin mo ang isda.
an affix
-An Affix
  • Typically denotes actions affecting the surface or appearance of the goal but not causing a change of its structure
  • It is a suffix
  • Denote movement in relation to a goal
  • Denote action typically involving a human goal
  • Used in a few pseudo-verbs
Affecting the appearance but not causing change
    • Hugasan – hugas – to wash
    • Walisan – walis – to sweep
    • Bukasan/buksan – bukas – to open
    • Sarahan/ sarhan – sara – to close

*** han is used if final letter of the root is a vowel a

Movement in relation to a goal
    • Abutan – abot – to pass something to
    • Dalahan/dalhan – dala – to bring something to
    • Lapitan – lapit – to approach someone
    • Puntahan – punta – to go to
    • Upuan – upo – to sit down on
Action involving a human/animate goal
    • Halikan – halik – to kiss
    • Ngitian – ngiti- to smile at
    • Tulungan – tulong – to help