Crisis Leadership Competency Model February 2009
Overview • Project Objective • Project Approach and Methodology • Competency Model Inputs and Sources • What are Competencies and How will They be Used? • The Crisis Leadership Competency Model • Integration and Next Steps
Project Objective • Define optimal performance of CDC leaders during public health emergencies, as a separate group of behaviors distinct from traditional leadership competencies.
Project Approach and Methodology Iterative Process of Qualitative Analysis • Collect and Code Qualitative Data • (Sep 3 – Oct 12) 2. Draft Competency Model (Oct 15 –Oct 26) 3. Validate Competency Model (Oct 29- Nov 16) 4. Finalize Proposed Competency Model (Nov 19 – Dec 7) 5. Integration Plan (Dec 10– Dec 14) • HHS four tier leadership competency model • CDC iLEAD competencies supplement • School of Preparedness and Emergency Response Competencies (SoPER) • HHS Learning Portal (LMS) • Literature review • Expert interviews • Online survey • CDC expert workgroup • Senior leadership briefings and approval – OWCD (March 12) and COTPER (April 17) • CDC expert workgroup
Literature Review Sources • Federal and Other Agency/Organization Documents • CDC Four-Tier Leadership Competencies • CDC Preparedness & Emergency Response Functional Competencies • Hurricane Katrina Response Overview – March, 2006 • MPRI Proposed Crisis Leadership Competencies • National Public Health Leadership Competency Framework – National Public Health Development Network, 2005) • Preparedness and Crisis Leadership Education Toolkit – Centers for Public Health Preparedness (CPHP), Preparedness and Crisis Leadership Education Exemplar Group • Lominger's Leadership Architect® Competency Library • Bioterrorism and Emergency Readiness: Competence for all Public Health Workers – The Columbia University School of Nursing Center for Health Policy, 2002 • Emergency Preparedness and Response Competencies for Hospital Workers – The Columbia University School of Nursing Center for Health Policy, 2003 • Books and Journal Articles • Crisis Leadership: Planning for the Unthinkable (Mitroff, 2003) • Crisis Leadership: Using Military Lessons, Organizational Experiences, and the Power of Influence to Lessen the Impact of Chaos on the People You Lead (Klann, Center for Creative Leadership, 2003) • Meta-Leadership and National Emergency Preparedness: A Model to Build Government Connectivity (Marcus, Dorn, & Henderson, 2006)
Literature Review Sources (continued) • Are you Ready to Make Effective Decisions when a Disaster Strikes? Strategies for Crisis Decision-Making (Naglewski, 2006) • Competency Development in Public Health Leadership (Wright, Rowitz, Merkle, et al., 2000) • Crisis Leader Research: Framework and Measurement Tool (Hadley & Pittinsky, Center for Public Leadership, Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University) • Decision Processes During a Crisis Response: Exploratory Investigation (Hale, Hale & Dulek, 2006) • Development and validation of the Crisis Leader Efficacy in Assessing and Deciding (C-LEAD) Scale (Hadley, Pittinsky, & Zhu, 2003) • Do Crisis Plans Matter? New Perspectives on Leading During a Crisis (Schoenberg, 2005) • Evolving Role of the Public Sector in Managing Catastrophic Disasters (Kapucu & Van Wart, 2006) • Healthcare Worker Competencies for Disaster Training (Hsu, Thomas, Bass, et al., 2006) • How to Display Competencies in Times of Crisis (James & Wooten, 2005) • Preparing for a Crisis (Power, 2004) • Selecting and Developing Crisis Leaders using Competency Based Simulations (Yusko & Goldstein, 1997) • Strategic Leadership Competencies (Wong et al, Strategic Studies Institute, 2003) • “Thinking the Unthinkable”: Leadership’s Role in Creating Behavioral Readiness for Crisis Management (Smits & Ezzat Ally, 2003)
Expert Interviews Conducted • Mr. Dan Ahern – Director, Leadership Performance Systems • Dr. Rich Besser - Director, COTPER • Dr. Jay Butler - Program Director, DEISS, NCPDCID, CCID, Alaska • Dr. Mitch Cohen - Director, CCID • Dr. Scott Deitchman - Assistant Director, Emergency Preparedness, NCEH • Ms. Donna Dinkin – Director, National Public Health Leadership Institute, University of North Carolina School of Public Health • Mr. Eric Gebbie – Public Health Preparedness Group, Center for Advancement of Distance Education, University of Illinois at Chicago • Mr. Joe Henderson - Acting Chief Operating Officer • Dr. Ali Khan - Deputy Director, NCZVED • Dr. Josephine Malilay - Associate Director for Science (Acting), NCEH • Dr. Lenny Marcus – Co-Director, National Preparedness Leadership Initiative - Harvard School of Public Health • Mr. Phil Navin - Director, Division of Emergency Operations, COTPER • Dr. Tom Sinks - Deputy Director, NCEH/ATSDR • Dr. Kate Wright – Director, Heartland Centers for Public Health and Community Capacity Development, St. Louis University School of Public Health
CDC SME Workgroup Members • Ms. Sherrie Bruce (CDC/CCID/NCPDCID) • Mr. Toby Crafton (CDC/CCID/OD) • Mr. Daniel (Dan)Holcomb (ATSDR/OA/OD) • Dr. RichardHunt (CDC/CCEHIP/NCIPC) • Mr. Richard A. Jones II (CDC/CCHIS/NCHM) • Ms. Wanda King, (CDC/COTPER/DSLR) • Dr. Dennis D. Lenaway (CDC/OD/OCPHP) • Dr. Mehran S. Massoudi (CDC/OD/OWCD) • Dr. Ralph O'Connor (CDC/COTPER/DEO) • Dr. Nicki Pesik (CDC/CCID/NCPDCID) • Mr. Harald Pietz (CDC/OCOO/OD) • Dr. Sven Rodenbeck (ATSDR/DHAC/CAPEB) • Mr. Peter Rzeszotarski (CDC/COTPER/OD) • Mr. Curtis Weaver (CDC/COTPER/DSNS)
Online Competency Validation Survey • The survey sample was drawn from PWMS. The PWMS population consisted of individuals rostered in leadership roles within the IMS. • Individuals who had participated in previous activities for this project were excluded (i.e. interviews and focus group). The final survey population included 231 leaders. • The survey invitation was distributed to 145 randomly selected individuals. • 58 individuals completed the survey, producing a response rate of 40%
Competencies Traits and Motives What Are Competencies? • Observable knowledge, skills and abilities that translate to behaviors which in turn predict job performance. • A competency model is a set of measurable success factors (competencies) that include the key behaviors required for excellent performance in a particular role. Source: Adopted from “Competence At Work” by Spencer and Spencer
How are Competencies Used? Organization Strategy Talent Strategy Talent Acquisition Talent Management • Recruiting • Selection • Employee Assimilation • Performance Management • Rewards and Recognition • Succession Planning • Career Planning • Leadership & Employee Development Competencies
How will the CDC Crisis Leadership Competency Model be Used? • The competency model will be used for the following purposes: • Serve as a road map for curriculum planning activities. • Guide needs assessment studies designed to identify competency gaps, prioritize competency development areas, and investments in training. • Serve as a tool for individuals to self-assess perceived competence and inform individual development plans. • Guide recruiting and selection of candidates for key CDC IMS leadership positions. • Assist in interpreting and understanding exercise and response performance gaps.
Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Courage and Perseverance Integrative Thinking Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Crisis Leadership Competency Model • This model lays out the nine competencies that were determined to be the most critical for leaders in a public health emergency response situation.
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelCommunication • Communicates effectively and concisely with internal and external audiences in the face of limited, unknown, stressful, and negative situations. • Expresses the crisis situation, mission, expectations for response team members and decisions in clear and compelling terms appropriate for the target audience • Initiates communication using vertical and horizontal channels of communication to keep leadership, peers and subordinates informed. Competency Statement: Communicates during times of crisis in a timely, clear, accurate, and truthful manner. Team Leadership Communication Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelConnectivity • Interacts effectively with officials, leadership, subordinates and peers from different agencies and organizations to engage in cross-functional activities, share information, and facilitate collaboration across organizational domains. • Uses influence and diplomacy skills to reach a goal, to build consensus, or to resolve a conflict. • Links knowledge of networks to successfully accomplish mission objectives. Competency Statement: Activates a network of partners that spans organizational domains and multi-jurisdictional agencies, and meets the immediate (and changing) needs of the response. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelCourage and Perseverance • Takes appropriate risks and accepts responsibility for the outcome. • Addresses resistance quickly, rationally, and fairly with due consideration. • Perseveres under difficult circumstances. • Displays steadfast adherence to public health priorities despite hardship or obstruction. Competency Statement: Displays strength, confidence and persistence when faced with danger, uncertainty, or intimidation. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Courage and Perseverance Integrative Thinking Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelCredibility • Demonstrates knowledge and experience in their area of expertise. • Exhibits humility; recognizes personal strengths and weaknesses; looks to others for guidance on topics outside of personal expertise; admits to mistakes and takes corrective action. • Discerns the appropriate information to share, and when to engage others in conversations, decisions and actions. • Acts in accordance with public health ethics, public health law, and organizational values for the common good of those responding to and impacted by the crisis. Competency Statement: Demonstrates expertise and trustworthiness in the midst of crisis; earns the confidence and respect of senior leaders, peers and subordinates. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelDecisiveness • Gathers facts, solicits input, makes reasonable and appropriate assumptions, consults with critical stakeholders, and weighs the benefits and risks in order to make and execute decisions quickly with incomplete or limited information. • Makes decisions rapidly; based on prior experience, intuition, and knowledge of established protocols. • Applies appropriate decision making processes – systematic problem solving verses experience / intuitively derived -- based on the conditions and context of the emergency response situation. • Perceives and anticipates the impact and implications of decisions. • Assesses and adjusts decisions and actions in response to changing information. Competency Statement: Makes critical, timely decisions when faced with ambiguous information about the disaster and response efforts. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelEmotional Effectiveness • Demonstrates self-awareness and responds constructively to problems and difficult interactions. • Recognizes survival instincts and signs of stress, demonstrates mental discipline, and maintains control. • Considers and responds to the needs, feelings, and capabilities of team members, stakeholders and individuals impacted by the crisis. • Promotes an environment of safety, connectedness, and hope. Competency Statement: Recognizes the impact crisis has on one’s self and others, and promotes positive interactions under emergency response conditions. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Intelligence Credibility Emotional Effectiveness Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelIntegrative Thinking • Synthesizes information into a coherent plan with a clear, yet flexible, strategy and priorities demonstrated through operations, tactics, and logistics. • Re-adjusts objectives based on changing priorities to align capacity and create desired results. • Proactively assesses and addresses both day-to-day and long term problems and opportunities. • Anticipates probable and possible events; develops innovative and adaptive solutions to current and potential crisis situations. Competency Statement: Identifies what is critically important during an emergency and uses the information to strategically lead, balance priorities, and anticipate consequences. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelSituational Awareness • Compiles a plausible picture of the situation that is compatible with the known facts and potential outcomes. • Acquires, represents, interprets, and utilizes relevant information in order to make sense of current events, to anticipate future developments, and to make intelligent decisions. • Demonstrates awareness of environment and activities; stays abreast of the mission status; continually assesses and reassesses the situation. Competency Statement: Identifies, processes, and comprehends the critical elements of an emergency with public health consequences. Team Leadership Communication Situational Awareness Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Crisis Leadership Competency ModelTeam Leadership • Models actions and behaviors that inspire and motivate positive responses from team members during a crisis. • Takes initiative to identify key cross-functional team personnel needed; obtains required resources and information so team members may effectively respond to the crisis. • Recognizes, acknowledges and addresses the impact of stress on their team during a crisis and makes themselves available and visible to the team when responding to the event. • Delegates roles, responsibilities, and decisions appropriately; shares responsibility, accountability and recognition; gives guidance, and promotes autonomy for others to make decisions within guidelines during the crisis. • Manages and resolves disputes and disagreements among team members in a positive and constructive manner. • Demonstrates flexibility when confronted with deviations from standard procedures; monitors changes in the performance of other team members. • Develops, communicates, and monitors expectations for team performance. Competency Statement: Leads, inspires, motivates, and guides emergency response team members in a safe and effective manner. Team Leadership Communication Team Leadership Situational Awareness Connectivity Crisis Leadership Competency Model Crisis Leadership Competency Model Integrative Thinking Courage and Perseverance Emotional Effectiveness Credibility Decisiveness Key Behaviors:
Integration The crisis leadership competencies supplement both the four-tier leadership competencies and the emergency response competencies. Emergency Response Competencies • Emergency Management Systems • Agency Preparedness and Emergency Response Roles • Informatics Support for Responses • Risk Communication and Media Relations • All Hazards Concepts • Disaster Mental Health Four-Tier CDC Leadership Competencies (supplement HHS) • Cultural Awareness • Dealing with Ambiguity • Emotional Intelligence • Ethics • HHS/CDC Operations • Leads Change • Personal Leadership Crisis Leadership Competencies • Communication • Connectivity • Courage and Perseverance • Credibility • Decisiveness • Emotional Effectiveness • Integrative Thinking • Situational Awareness • Team Leadership
Next Steps • Competency Assessment • Load the competencies into the LMS. • Encourage all current and potential emergency response leaders to complete online competency assessments. The competency model will be used for assessments, curriculum development, and selection. The actions below will enable these activities. Curriculum Development • Map existing courses and developmental opportunities to competencies. • Identify gaps, competencies that are not appropriately addressed with existing curriculum. • Gather data from competency assessments to determine the most significant areas for development for the population as a whole. • Design and develop blended curriculum for competencies not currently addressed with existing curriculum and those identified as a key workforce areas for development. • Ensure crisis leadership is addressed within the PAHPA / HSPD-21 core curriculum initiative. Talent Selection • Integrate competencies into the CDC Incident Manager job action sheet. • Utilize competencies to inform selection of key CDC IMS leaders.