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Chapter 8 and 9 bonding and hybridization By Cam Quan Polarity of bonds, electronegativities . .02 1.7 ionic nonpolar polar Covalent Bond Ionic Bond Polarity increase Electronegativity : tendency to attract electrons

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polarity of bonds electronegativities
Polarity of bonds, electronegativities.

.02

1.7

ionic

nonpolar

polar

Covalent Bond Ionic Bond

Polarity increase

  • Electronegativity : tendency to attract electrons
  • The difference in electronegative between two atoms tell us how polar the bond is.
  • Dipole Moment: a molecule with a center of negative charge and a center of positive charge. The dipole character can identifies by an arrow that has one positive head and one negative end. + -

Ex:

F₂

F₂ shares the electrons equally but sometimes one of the

atoms (the more electronegative one) will exert a stronger pull

on the electrons in the bond-not enough to make the bond

ionic, however, enough to keep the electrons on one side of the

molecule more than the other  Polar bond

molecular models
Molecular models
  • Lewis structure-tells us how the atoms are connected to each other.
            • Count and sum the valence electrons from all the atoms.
            • Use a pair of electrons to form an bond between each pair of bound atoms. The bond indicates by a line not a dot.
            • Arrange the remaining electrons to satisfy the duet rule of hydrogen and octet rule for the second-row elements.

The valence electrons can indicate by dots or lines.

EXCEPTION OF THE OCTET RULE: on the handout.

            • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ioj8BX9dlz0

VIDEO

molecular models5
Molecular models
  • Resonance
    • Some of the molecule has more than one valid Lewis structure. This situation is usually represented by double-headed arrows as follows.
    • Ex:
    • To select the most appropriate structure, chemists use formal charge. Those with formal charges closest to 0 are the chosen one.
molecular models6
Molecular models

Lone pair: alone on 1 atom.

Bonded pair: shared by 2 atoms.

  • VSEPR: Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion .
  • Electrons will be as far as possible.
  • To predict molecular structure/geometry.
  • To have an accurate VSEPR, you have to draw correct Lewis Structure.
molecular models7
Molecular models
  • Hybridization : the mixing of atomic orbitals to form orbitals used for bonding.
    • Show us the geometry of the molecule.
  • Sigma bond is characterized by head-to-head side-to side overlap and cylindrical symmentry of electron density about the internuclear axis.
  • Pi bond is characterized by and electron density above and below the internuclear axis.
slide9

3. Geometry of molecules and ions, structural isonerism of simple organic molecules and coordination complexes, dipole moments of molecules, relations of properties to structure.

  • Coordination Compound: a compound containing one or more coordinate bonds, which is a link between a pair of electrons in which both electrons are donated by one of the atoms.
  • Examples: most metal complexes or compounds except for alloys. Specific examples include hemoglobin and Ru3(CO)12
  • Two or more molecules with the same molecular formula, but with different arrangement of atoms and different chemical properties. For instance, ethanol and dimethyl ether are isomers because each compound contains 2 C, 6 H, and 1 O. http://www.sciencegeek.net/APchemistry/Presentations/Chapter22/index.html
  • Relations of properties to structure: Go to this website:
  • http://www.sciencegeek.net/APchemistry/APpdfs/chap22notes.pdf
5 questions from previous ap test
5 questions from previous ap test

http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap08_chemistry_coursedesc.pdf

5 questions from previous ap test11
5 questions from previous ap test

http://apcentral.collegeboard.com/apc/public/repository/ap08_chemistry_coursedesc.pdf

5 questions from previous ap test12
5 questions from previous ap test

27. A molecule with the formula XY₂ whose atoms are arranged linearly could have a central atom with which of the following hybridizations.

I.

II.

III.

  • I only
  • II only
  • I and II only
  • I and III only
  • I,II, and III

dsp3

5 questions from previous ap test http www 4tests com exams questions asp googlebot 33
5 questions from previous ap test http://www.4tests.com/exams/questions.asp?googlebot=33
  • Which molecule is nonpolar and has a symmetrical shape?

a)HCl

b)H2O

c)CH4

d)NH3