chapter 4 a tour of the cell by dr par mohammadian n.
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CHAPTER 4 A Tour of the Cell By Dr. Par Mohammadian

CHAPTER 4 A Tour of the Cell By Dr. Par Mohammadian

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CHAPTER 4 A Tour of the Cell By Dr. Par Mohammadian

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  1. CHAPTER 4A Tour of the Cell By Dr. Par Mohammadian • Overview: • Microscopes • Cells • Prokaryotes • Eukaryotes • Animal Cells • Plants Cells • Cell Junctions

  2. Microscopes

  3. INTRODUCTION TO THE WORLD OF THE CELL • Using a microscope, Robert Hooke discovered cells in 1665 • Cells are the building blocks of all life • Organisms are either • Single-celled, such as most bacteria • Multicelled, such as plants, animals

  4. Microscopes provide windows to the world of the cell The light microscope (LM) enables us to see the overall shape and structure of a cell

  5. Micrograph: A photograph taken through a microscope. • LM 109X: The image under the light microscope is 109 times the actual size of the organisms. • Magnification: Increase in the apparent size of an object. • Resolving power: Measure of the clarity of an image.

  6. Electron microscopes (EM) were invented in the 1950s • They use a beam of electrons instead of light • The greater resolving power of electron microscopes • allows greater magnification (0.2 nm vs. LM 0.2 µm) • reveals cellular details • LM remains the major tool to study living organisms because in EM specimen must be held in vacuum.

  7. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to study the detailed architecture of the surface of a cell

  8. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) is useful for exploring the internal structure of a cell

  9. Natural laws limit cell size • At minimum, a cell must be large enough to house the parts it needs to survive and reproduce • The maximum size of a cell is limited by the amount of surface needed to obtain nutrients from the environment and dispose of wastes

  10. Cells Prokaryotic Cells Eukaryotic Cells Animal Cells Plant Cells

  11. The Two Major Categories of Cells • The countless cells on earth fall into two categories • Prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotic cells • Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells differ in several respects

  12. Are smaller than eukaryotic cells and are simple • Lack internal structures surrounded by membranes • Lack a nucleus • Prokaryotic cells

  13. A prokaryotic cell is enclosed by a plasma membrane (protects & shape of the cell) and is usually encased in a rigid cell wall (further protection) • The cell wall may be covered by a sticky capsule (help glue prok. to surfaces) • Inside the cell are its DNA and other parts

  14. Eukaryotic cells are partitioned into functional compartments • All other life forms (such as animals, plants, protists, or fungi) are made up of one or more eukaryotic cells • These are larger and more complex than prokaryotic cells • Eukaryotes are distinguished by the presence of a true nucleus

  15. The plasma membrane controls the cell’s contact with the environment • The cytoplasm contains organelles • Many organelles have membranes as boundaries • These compartmentalize the interior of the cell • This allows the cell to carry out a variety of activities simultaneously

  16. A plant cell has some structures that an animal cell lacks: • Chloroplasts • A rigid cell wall • Central vacuole

  17. The nucleus is the cell’s genetic control center • The largest organelle is usually the nucleus • The nucleus is separated from the cytoplasm by the nuclear envelope • The nucleus is the cellular control center • It contains the DNA that directs the cell’s activities • Genes in the nucleus store information necessary to produce proteins

  18. MEMBRANE STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION • The plasma membrane separates the living cell from its nonliving surroundings A Fluid Mosaic of Lipids and Proteins • The membranes of cells are composed of • Lipids • Proteins

  19. Cytoplasm • The endomembrane system is a collection of membranous organelles • These organelles manufacture and distribute cell products • The endomembrane system divides the cell into compartments • Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is part of the endomembrane system

  20. Rough endoplasmic reticulum makes membrane and proteins • The rough ER manufactures membranes • Ribosomes on its surface produce proteins • The “roughness” of the rough ER is due to ribosomes that stud the outside of the ER membrane • Synthesized polypeptide is passed into ER • Sugars attach to polypeptides forming glycoprotein • ER packages it in tinny sacs called transport vesicles • It buds off from the ER & secretory vesicles travel to Golgi apparatus.

  21. Producing proteins • Producing new membrane • The functions of the rough ER include

  22. Smooth endoplasmic reticulum has a variety of functions • Smooth ER synthesizes lipids • In some cells, it regulates carbohydrate metabolism and breaks down toxins and drugs • Stores Ca ions

  23. The Golgi apparatus finishes, sorts, and ships cell products • The Golgi apparatus consists of stacks of membranous sacs • These receive and modify ER products, then send them on to other organelles or to the cell membrane

  24. Lysosomes digest the cell’s food and wastes • Lysosomes are sacs of digestive enzymes • Lysosomal enzymes • digest food • destroy bacteria • recycle damaged organelles • function in embryonic development in animals

  25. Vacuoles • Two types are the contractile vacuoles of protists and the central vacuoles of plants • Vacuoles are membranous sacs • The vacuole has lysosomal and storage functions

  26. CHLOROPLASTS AND MITOCHONDRIA: ENERGY CONVERSION • Cells require a constant energy supply to do all the work of life

  27. CHLOROPLASTS • Chloroplasts are the sites of photosynthesis, the conversion of light energy to chemical energy

  28. Mitochondria • Mitochondria are the sites of cellular respiration, which involves the production of ATP from food molecules

  29. THE CYTOSKELETON AND RELATED STRUCTURES The cell’s internal skeleton helps organize its structure and activities • A network of protein fibers makes up the cytoskeleton

  30. Maintaining Cell Shape • One function of the cytoskeleton • Provide mechanical support to the cell and maintain its shape

  31. This allows cells like amoebae to move • The cytoskeleton can change the shape of a cell

  32. Intermediate filaments reinforce the cell and anchor certain organelles • Microtubules • give the cell rigidity • provide anchors for organelles • act as tracks for organelle movement • Microfilaments of actin enable cells to change shape and move

  33. Cilia and flagella move when microtubules bend • Eukaryotic cilia and flagella are locomotor appendages that protrude from certain cells • A cilia or flagellum is composed of a core of microtubules wrapped in an extension of the plasma membrane

  34. Flagella propel the cell in a whiplike motion • Cilia move in a coordinated back-and-forth motion

  35. Some cilia or flagella extend from nonmoving cells • The human windpipe is lined with cilia

  36. Cell Junctions

  37. EUKARYOTIC CELL SURFACES AND JUNCTIONS Cell surfaces protect, support, and join cells • Cells interact with their environments and each other via their surfaces • Plant cells are supported by rigid cell walls made largely of cellulose • They connect by plasmodesmata, channels that allow them to share water, food, and chemical messages

  38. Plant Cell Walls and Cell Junctions • These provide support for the plant cells • Plant cells are encased by cell walls

  39. Animal Cell Surfaces and Cell Junctions • Animal cells lack cell walls • They secrete a sticky covering called the extracellular matrix • This layer helps hold cells together • Animal cells connect by various types of junctions • Tight junctions • Adhering junctions • Communicating junctions

  40. Anchoring junctions link animal cells • Communicating junctions allow substances to flow from cell to cell • Tight junctions can bind cells together into leakproof sheets