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Chapter 2 Traditions of Teaching Created shortly before the U.S. entered World War I Social Studies Fred Morrow Fling Source method Jackdaws Primary sources Led to list on page 41 Problem – when students used too many primary sources, they lost the big picture and connections

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fred morrow fling
Fred Morrow Fling
  • Source method
    • Jackdaws
    • Primary sources
    • Led to list on page 41
    • Problem – when students used too many primary sources, they lost the big picture and connections
history and creation of social studies
History and Creation of Social Studies
  • National Council for the Social Studies
    • Created by the American Historical Association in 1921
  • History began to loose its central role.
  • Historians rarely participate today
history and the social studies projects
History and the Social Studies Projects
  • 1960’s
  • Jerome Bruner
    • The Process of Education
      • People began to doubt the need for history
      • Was historical information important in a rapidly changing world?
  • Many professors created innovative projects.
    • Led to project-based learning in the social studies.
    • MACOS
    • Values education – many called for students to decide on whether or not things were right or wrong.
history and the decision making model
History and the Decision-Making Model
  • Interdisciplinary
  • Shirley Engle and Anna Ochoa
  • History was a place to go for data but did not need to be studied by itself.
  • Authors hate this one and outline their beliefs on pages 44-45.
history on the wane
History on the Wane
  • U. S. history is in most state constitutions.
  • World history does not have such luck.
  • Social studies also included
    • Civics/government
    • Economics
    • World Geography
    • Sociology
    • Problems of Democracy
  • By the 80’s, world history was all but gone.
history returns
History Returns
  • Diane Ravitch
    • Under-secretary of Education
    • Wrote California Social Studies Curriculum
    • Eliminated the Expanding Horizons philosophy
    • Relied on work of Bruno Bettelheim
  • Bradley Commission on History in Schools
    • National Council for History Education
    • Habits of mind, page 15
  • A Nation at Risk
  • GOALS 2000 – funded history, not social studies
social studies defined
Social Studies Defined
  • Social studies includes history, but should not be dominated by it.
  • History got funding, but NCATE chose the NCSS standards to mold accreditation.
  • As states wrote standards they looked at both.
  • Found history standards laborious; found social studies as good organizers.
  • States adopted the new Ravitch curriculum.
    • Including Georgia
history makes a revival again
History Makes a Revival Again
  • Senator Robert Byrd
    • American History Grants
  • President Bush
    • White House Forum on American History, Civics, and Service
    • Eliminated funding from his budget
    • Failed to change NCLB to include history or social studies
internal disputes
Internal Disputes
  • History wars
  • Arguments for whose history should be taught
    • Lynne Cheney
    • Gary Nash
    • Voted down in Congress
    • Re-written, did not change much
    • We are still using these.