Created shortly before the U.S. entered World War I Social Studies
Fred Morrow Fling • Source method • Jackdaws • Primary sources • Led to list on page 41 • Problem – when students used too many primary sources, they lost the big picture and connections
History and Creation of Social Studies • National Council for the Social Studies • Created by the American Historical Association in 1921 • History began to loose its central role. • Historians rarely participate today
History and the Social Studies Projects • 1960’s • Jerome Bruner • The Process of Education • People began to doubt the need for history • Was historical information important in a rapidly changing world? • Many professors created innovative projects. • Led to project-based learning in the social studies. • MACOS • Values education – many called for students to decide on whether or not things were right or wrong.
History and the Decision-Making Model • Interdisciplinary • Shirley Engle and Anna Ochoa • History was a place to go for data but did not need to be studied by itself. • Authors hate this one and outline their beliefs on pages 44-45.
History on the Wane • U. S. history is in most state constitutions. • World history does not have such luck. • Social studies also included • Civics/government • Economics • World Geography • Sociology • Problems of Democracy • By the 80’s, world history was all but gone.
History Returns • Diane Ravitch • Under-secretary of Education • Wrote California Social Studies Curriculum • Eliminated the Expanding Horizons philosophy • Relied on work of Bruno Bettelheim • Bradley Commission on History in Schools • National Council for History Education • Habits of mind, page 15 • A Nation at Risk • GOALS 2000 – funded history, not social studies
Social Studies Defined • Social studies includes history, but should not be dominated by it. • History got funding, but NCATE chose the NCSS standards to mold accreditation. • As states wrote standards they looked at both. • Found history standards laborious; found social studies as good organizers. • States adopted the new Ravitch curriculum. • Including Georgia
History Makes a Revival Again • Senator Robert Byrd • American History Grants • President Bush • White House Forum on American History, Civics, and Service • Eliminated funding from his budget • Failed to change NCLB to include history or social studies
Internal Disputes • History wars • Arguments for whose history should be taught • Lynne Cheney • Gary Nash • Voted down in Congress • Re-written, did not change much • We are still using these.