Renewing the Sectional Struggle. The National Divide. The South Expands. Slavery and Society. Increase in Southern Slavery. Southern Myth. The Planter Aristocracy. Oak Alley Plantation. Planter aristocracy ruled the Old South, both politically and economically (FFV’s).
The National Divide
Slavery and Society
Oak Alley Plantation
Planter aristocracy ruled the Old South, both politically and economically (FFV’s).
Cotton South was more democratic politically, but still economically skewed.
In 1860, only about 25% of Southerners owned slaves.
Non-slave owning whites supported the institution as part of the “American Dream” of economic success
Poor, nonslave-holding whites were known as "poor white trash”, “rednecks,” and “crackers.”
Next came the mountain whites (“hillbillies”) who lived in the valley of the Appalachian range.
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe
A novel dramatizing the cruelties of slavery
It touched readers emotionally and created widespread antislavery support among northerners.
Sold 300,000 copies inthe first year.
“What a horribly cruel system!”
“What kinda Yankee abolitionist propaganda is this?!”
John Brown: A violent abolitionist who used militant actions to abolish slavery
Commanded forces in battles in the Bleeding Kansas campaign. At Pottawatomie Creek he killed and chopped up 5 slavery supporters.
Raid on Harper’s Ferry: Brown raided a federal arsenal in hopes of inciting slave rebellion. It failed, and he was tried, convicted, and hanged.
He became an instant martyr for the abolitionist cause.
Sojourner Truth- freed black woman who fought for black emancipation and women's rights.
Frederick Douglass- lectured widely for abolitionism; looked to politics to end slavery. Was a consultant for Abraham Lincoln.
The Constitution (3/5 Compromise) favored the South
Agricultural lifestyle of the South created an environment of individualism and a distrust towards authority.
What do these decisions have in common?
General Lewis Cass
British influence in Central America was strong and even growing, despite the Monroe Doctrine
Clayton-Bulwer Treaty stated that neither the U.S. or Britain would take over the area without the other’s agreement.
The overall result of the Gold Rush was that California had enough people to become a state almost overnight.
Bypassed the territorial stage, drafted a Constitution and prepared to join the union as a free state
Would have disrupted the 15-15 balance in the Senate
Since it was opened to popular sovereignty and was perched to grow, Kansas became the new slavery battleground.
The unspoken understanding during the Kansas-Nebraska Act was that Kansas would go slave and Nebraska free.
Northern “Free Soilers” move to Kansas
“Border ruffians” jump the border to sway the election in favor of slavery
Free soilers argue the election was rigged and drew up the Topeka Constitution -> LeCompton Constitution
The end results were (a) the Democratic party was terribly divided, (b) Kansas was now left in limbo—somewhere in between a territory and a state, and (c) the slavery question was still not answered.
Founded in the Northern states in 1854 by anti-slavery activists, modernizers, and ex-Free Soilers.
The main cause was opposition to the Kansas–Nebraska Act; the Northern Republicans saw the expansion of slavery as a great evil.
By 1858, the Republicans dominated nearly all Northern states.
The election was ugly, complete with mudslinging and charges of conspiracy and scandal. Fremont was accused of being Catholic which hurt his votes.