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VOC's Perfumed Menace. Global Training Edge Inc. www.GlobalTrainingEdge.com. Disclaimer. Outline. What are VOCs? Where do they come from? What health effects do VOCs cause? How can I tell if I have any? What limits are there? Sampling methods How can I control them?

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voc s perfumed menace

VOC's Perfumed Menace

Global Training Edge Inc.

www.GlobalTrainingEdge.com

Global Training Edge Inc.

disclaimer
Disclaimer

Global Training Edge Inc.

outline
Outline
  • What are VOCs?
  • Where do they come from?
  • What health effects do VOCs cause?
  • How can I tell if I have any?
  • What limits are there?
  • Sampling methods
  • How can I control them?
    • Scent-free policies
  • Conclusion

Global Training Edge Inc.

what are vocs volatile organic compounds from oxford english dictionary
What are VOCs?Volatile organic compounds(From Oxford English Dictionary)
  • Volatile - easily evaporated at normal temperatures
  • Organic - relating to or denoting compounds containing carbon and chiefly or ultimately of biological origin
  • Compounds - substance formed from two or more elements chemically united in fixed proportions

Global Training Edge Inc.

what are vocs
What are VOCs?
  • Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are chemicals that evaporate easily at room temperature
  • VOC exposures are often associated with an odor while other times there is no detectable odor. Both can be harmful.
  • There are thousands of different VOCs produced and used in our daily lives.

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what are they really
What are they really?
  • VOC’s are the odors and aromas that we smell all around us
    • Perfumes
    • Fragrances for soaps and shampoos
    • Hairspray
    • Deodorants
    • Scented candles, incense, potpourri
    • Cosmetics
    • Washroom deordorizer
    • Flowers, plants and trees

Global Training Edge Inc.

what are they really8
What are they really?
  • VOC’s are the odors and aromas that we smell all around us
    • Perfumes
    • Fragrances for soaps and shampoos
    • Hairsprays
    • Deodorants
    • Scented candles, incense, potpourri
    • Cosmetics
    • Washroom deordorizer
    • Flowers, plants and trees

Global Training Edge Inc.

what are they really9
What are they really?
  • And ………..
    • Smelly socks
    • My son’s sneakers
    • My dog after being out in the rain
    • Grandma’s pot roast
    • The can of “new car smell” that I bought at Canadian Tire
    • Bovine flatulence

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perfumes and fragrances
Perfumes and Fragrances
  • $22 000 000 000 sales worldwide in 2004

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fragrance chemicals ingredients that smell of danger
Fragrance ChemicalsIngredients that Smell of Danger
  • 90% of fragrances are synthetic chemical, with as many as 7000 VOCs
  • Some of these masking scents are designed to cover up unpleasant or unwanted odours inherent in a product, but some work by deadening our ability to smell the offending odour.
  • Of fragrance chemicals, “84% of these ingredients have never or only minimally been tested for human toxicity”

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calvin klein s perfume eternity a shortcut to eternity
Calvin Klein's Perfume “Eternity“A Shortcut to Eternity?
  • “Eternity” perfume has been known since 1995 as toxic to the respiratory tract and nervous system
  • Analysis by two independent laboratories found of the 41 identified ingredients some had no toxicity data available, some were inadequate, and some were known to be toxic to the skin, mucous membranes, respiratory tract, and reproductive and nervous systems by routes including skin absorption and inhalation.
  • Two ingredients were identified as carcinogens

Global Training Edge Inc.

living in a fragranced world no scents in labelling
Living in a Fragranced WorldNo Scents in Labelling
  • “Unscented”, “Fragrance-Free” “Hypoallergenic”, “Natural”, “Green” “Floral”, “Outdoor Fresh” and “Environmentally Friendly” are words that sound good but have no legal definition. They are used in industry virtually without restriction. Buyer beware.
  • “Scent-free” may only mean that the product has less scent than a scented version of the same product from that manufacturer.

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vocs are also emitted by thousands of products in our workplaces
VOCs are also Emitted by Thousands of Products In our Workplaces
  • paints, lacquers and strippers
  • cleaning supplies
  • pesticides
  • building materials, carpeting and furnishings
  • office equipment such as copiers and printers, especially new things
  • correction fluids and carbonless copy paper
  • graphics and craft materials including glues and adhesives, permanent markers
  • photographic solutions
  • Fuel

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sources of common vocs
Sources of Common VOCs

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factor that influence the emissions of vocs
Factor that influence the emissions of VOCs
  • Total amount and volatility of VOCs
  • Distribution of VOCs between the surface and the interior of material
  • Time (age of material)
  • Surface area of the material
  • Environmental factors such as temperature, air exchange, and relative humidity (some more than others)
  • Chemical reactions in the source (conversions in varnishes and adhesives)

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relative volatility
Relative Volatility

See International Chemical Safety Cards at http://www.ilo.org/public/english/protection/safework/cis/products/icsc/dtasht/

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choosing products based on volatility
Product A

Ingredient X

30 %

Vapour Pressure = 45 kPa

Product B

Ingredient Y

30 %

Vapour Pressure = 15 kPa

Choosing Products Based on Volatility

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relative emission rates
Relative Emission Rates

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voc distribution
VOC distribution
  • VOC exposure is mostly from indoor sources because:
    • VOCs are more concentrated indoors
    • People spend more time indoors 90 %
    • New buildings can have VOC concentrations 100 x outdoor concentrations
  • VOCs are everywhere, even in the country
    • Many come from natural sources
      • Decay
      • Farm wastes
      • Flowers, plants, trees

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vocs from natural sources
VOCs from Natural Sources
  • Forests
  • Grasslands
  • Swamps
  • Plants
          • SWEETGUM TREE

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how vocs enter the body
How VOCs Enter the Body?
  • VOCs are present in gas or vapour so enter the body by breathing
  • Drinking water, food, beverages containing high levels of VOCs may be harmful to human health

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after vocs enter the body via inhalation
After VOCs Enter the Body Via Inhalation?
  • Some are absorbed by the upper respiratory system
  • Others, depending on the size and mass are able to reach deep into the lungs
  • VOCs can be carried by the blood stream to a variety of organs ( liver, kidney) or systems (central nervous system and circulatory) depending on their chemical properties (solubility in blood. Volatility to escape blood and their ability to be broken down)

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what are the health effects of voc exposure
Acute

Eye irritation / watering

Nose irritation

Throat irritation

Headaches

Nausea / Vomiting

Dizziness

Asthma exacerbation

Chronic

Cancer

Liver damage

Kidney damage

Central Nervous System damage

What are the health effects of VOC exposure?

Global Training Edge Inc.

common carcinogenic vocs
Benzene

Cigarette smoke

Carbon black

Carbon tetrachloride

Chloroform

Diesel/gasoline engine exhaust

Formaldehyde

Gasoline

Methylene chloride

Naphthalene

Perchloroethylene

PCB

Styrene

Toulene diisocyanate

Common Carcinogenic VOCs

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so do i have vocs
So Do I Have VOCs?
  • Quick answer – You do. VOCs are everywhere!!!
  • So what is the real question???
    • Do I have too much?????

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standards or guidelines
Standards or Guidelines
  • Health Canada (homes)
    • 0.120 mg/m3 (formaldehyde)
    • 0.050 mg/m3 (acrolein)
    • 9.0 mg/m3 (acetaldehyde)
  • US EPA: 0.20 mg/m3 TVOCs
  • State of Washington: 0.50 mg/m3 TVOCs.
  • Indoor Air Quality Association: 3.0 mg/m3 TVOCs.
  • ASHRAE: 10% of the OSHA TLV
  • Carpet & Rug Institute (CRI)
    • Adhesives: 10.0 mg/m2/hr TVOCs
    • Carpeting: 0.50 mg/ m2/hr TVOCs

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facts findings
Facts & Findings
  • TVOC levels indoors are generally 10 to 100 times higher than outdoor levels.
  • TVOC levels in new buildings and renovated indoor spaces are up to 30 mg/m3
  • TVOC levels in non-complaint buildings range from 0.20 to 0.50 mg/m3

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voc concentrations in new cars
VOC Concentrations in New Cars,

The total VOC levels found have been observed previously to cause sensory irritation and performance and memory impairments to human subjects, showing that the pollution of new car interiors may be a safety issue.

The decay of TVOC concentrations was found to be exponential, at approximately 20% per week, with the National Health and Medical Research Council indoor air goal being reached after approximately 26 weeks.

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legal limits in nova scotia
Legal Limits in Nova Scotia
  • Homes
    • None
  • Workplaces
    • Acetone 500 ppm
    • Formaldeyde 0.3 ppm (ceiling)
    • Gasoline 300 ppm
    • Toluene 50 ppm
    • Xylene 100 ppm

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sampling for vocs
Sampling for VOCs
  • Organic Vapour Badges
    • Advantages
      • Easy to use
      • Lightweight
      • Low capital cost
    • Disadvantages
      • Lower accuracy
      • Lower sensitivity
      • Require longer sampling time

Global Training Edge Inc.

sampling for vocs36
Sampling for VOCs
  • Pumps and filters
    • Advantages
      • Higher sensitivity
      • Higher degree of accuracy
      • Average sampling time
    • Disadvantages
      • Higher capital cost
      • Heavier weight for wearer

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sampling for vocs37
Sampling for VOCs
  • Real-time Monitors
    • Advantages
      • Monitoring for unlimited time
      • Minute by minute reading
      • Data can be logged into a computer
      • Can be used as a tracking machine to find sources
    • Disadvantages
      • Often only test for one chemical at a time
      • Very expensive

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investigation techniques general screening
Investigation TechniquesGeneral Screening
  • Look for obvious or uncontrolled emissions
    • Changes or new things
    • Open containers, overused chemicals
  • Use screening techniques to determine the potential sources that may require more sensitive and accurate evaluation or may require action
    • Collect screening samples using detector tubes or direct reading instruments.
  • Based on screening results, validated sampling procedures may be required to further quantify employee exposures.

Global Training Edge Inc.

how can i get rid of them
How Can I Get Rid of Them
  • Scent Free Policies
  • Chose products that contain low or no VOCs (Environmentally Preferable Purchasing)
  • Follow Manufacturer’s instructions/don’t mix products
  • Control climate – as temperature and humidity increase some chemicals will off gas more
  • Air cleaners – look for ones with activated charcoal filtration designed to remove chemicals from the air.
  • Remove unused chemicals. Only buy in quantities you will use soon
  • Off gas products first
  • Ventilation
    • More fresh air; open doors and windows
    • Local exhaust

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slide40

Low VOC Paint

  Paint without the fresh-paint smell

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slide42

News Story

May 4, 2005 - Epoxy Coat™ 7000 NonVOC

VOC-Free Concrete Floor

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slide43

Printing Industry

Converting Solvent Based Inks with Water Based Inks

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sample scent free policy
Sample: Scent-Free Policy
  • Due to the health concerns arising from exposure to scented products, ABC Company Inc. has introduced this policy to provide a scent-free environment for all employees and visitors.
  • The use of scented products will not be allowed within the building at any time. In addition, all materials used for cleaning will be scent-free (wherever possible)
  • Employees will be informed of this policy through signs posted in buildings, the policy manual, promotional materials and orientation and training.
  • Visitors will be informed of this policy through signs and it will be explained to them by their host. Any violations of this policy will be handled through standard disciplinary procedures.
  • This policy is effective on 01/01/01.

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scent free policy issues
Scent Free Policy Issues
  • Scope
    • Probably include cosmetics, cleaners
      • What about flowers, Christmas trees, spicy food?
      • What about odours from outside?
    • Visitors?
      • How will you tell them?
      • Will you send them home?
  • Enforcement
    • Will the policy be enforced?
  • Alternatives
    • Are you sure there are alternatives to what is being banned?

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alternatives to a scent free policy
Alternatives to a Scent-Free Policy?
  • Identify the source of the problem. Reduce emissions from
    • building materials
    • cleaning products
  • Ventilation
    • Ensure that air is being replaced with fresh air, and that scents are not simply being recycled throughout the building.
  • If the source is an employee, try asking the person to wear a lighter scent, or less of it.
    • As a guideline no scent should be detectable at more than an arm's length from individual.

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conclusions
Conclusions
  • VOCs are everywhere – can’t eliminate
  • Aim is to control them
    • Choose low VOC products and minimize how much is used
    • Timing
      • Storing (wearhouse- off gas)
      • Time processes ( over weekend )
    • Ventilation

Global Training Edge Inc.