Review for Final Exam World War I through 2001
World War I (US view) • President Wilson- declares US neutrality, but the Lusitania is sunk in 1915 by Germany • Unrestricted Submarine Warfare- used by the Germans to sink all ships near Europe, the U.S. complains • Zimmerman telegram- letter Germany sends to Mexico asking them to attack the U.S. and they would help fight us, President Wilson declares war
Domestic Impact of WW I • Selective Service Act (draft)– Random selection process so that all groups would be called into service • Women at work – 1st time ever • Daylight Savings Time- designed to save fuel • Migration of workers – Mexicans and African-Americans took advantage of the open jobs in the north
Great Migration From 1910-1930, African-Americans migrate from the South to the North Reasons- Escape Jim Crow Laws in the South Jobs in factories in Northern cities during WWI Anger over not being treated equal after fighting for America in WWI
Espionage and Sedition Act Espionage and Sedition Act – 20 year prison sentence for inciting rebellion in the armed forces or obstructing the draft. Sedition centered on anyone making disloyal or abusive remarks about the U.S. government
Eugene Debs Former leader of the AFL, now Socialist Party Presidential Candidate Jailed in Atlanta for violating the Espionage and Sedition Act, speaking out against recruiting
Wilson’s Fourteen Points • Key ideas the President felt were needed to avoid another World War • League of Nations- suggested as a peacekeeping organization • Senate opposition- U.S. Senators reject the Treaty of Versailles in favor of isolationism, many believe the League would draw them into another European war
Prohibition • 18th Amendment- banned the sale of alcohol in the United States • Passed during the Progressive Era
Women’s Suffrage • 19th Amendment- Gave women the right to vote. • Passed because women helped get the U.S. prepared during World War I
Communism • Political belief in a one-party government ruled by a dictator • There is no private ownership, all property is owned by the state • People in the United States were afraid of this idea after World War I
Red Scare • The fear of international communism, it was called the Red Scare because red was the color of the communist flag
Immigrant Restriction • The Quota System- This emerges as a reaction to the Red Scare • sharply reduces European immigration • 1924, European arrivals cut to 2% of number of residents in 1890 • Discriminates against southern, eastern Europeans • Prohibits Japanese immigration; causes ill will between U.S., Japan • Does not apply to Western Hemisphere; many Canadians, Mexicans enter
Impact of the Automobile • Henry Ford- The “Father of Mass Production” • Assembly Line- Parts flow down a conveyer belt, each part a small section of a greater machine • Division of Labor- Each person on an assembly line does one job repeatedly until a machine is put together. • Mass Production- Assembly Line allows for high production of goods at a cheap cost. • Model T- millions are made and sold in America cheaply by Ford
Impact of Radio and Movies • Mass Media- the use of radio and movies created movie stars in the United States and made sport’s figures celebrities
Harlem Renaissance • Harlem, New York – a wave of creativity celebrating African culture spreads across the country • Langston Hughes – Notable author, poet, and play writer, Theme for English B • Jazz Age – a form of music from New Orleans Key Jazz Artists – Duke Ellington, Louis Armstrong
Irving Berlin and Tin Pan Alley Irving Berlin- Russian born, American musical composer Berlin wrote over 1,000 songs most famous are “God Bless America”, “White Christmas” Tin Pan Alley- located in New York City, it was the center of music in the world for 30 years. Irving Berlin worked here for a time.
Causes of the Great Depression • Distribution of wealth- Wages had not risen with corporate profits. Over 70% of Americans were living below the poverty line. • Stock Market Speculation- was seen as a get rich quick scheme. Millions of Americans poured in money expecting to get rich.
Causes of the Great Depression • “Playing the market”-People began guessing on stock prices this is called speculation. • Buying on Margin- allowed people to borrow for the cost of the stock but only paying 10% of the price.
Causes of the Great Depression • Consumption- the working class and poor can’t afford the products made by companies • Overproduction- Companies produced more than people could buy, so they cut wages to make money
Causes Great Depression • Government control- no regulation of businesses, led to high prices and low wages • Farms- income declines as people can’t buy their crops, farmers lose their farms
The Great Depression • Period of economic crisis lasting from 1929-1939 • Economic crisis that caused 25% unemployment and worldwide poverty • Banks Collapse- people panic and withdraw their money causing over 20% of all banks to close wiping out millions of savings accounts
President Hoover President at the beginning of the Great Depression, he believed it was the responsibility of the state and local governments to help not the federal government,
The Great Depression’s Effects • Soup kitchens- offer free or low-cost food • Bread lines- people line up for food from charities, public agencies. Americans find this shameful to stand in lines and reject them.
The Great Depression’s Effects African Americans, Latinos have higher unemployment, lower pay Shantytowns- settlements consisting of shacks, arise in cities, people dig through garbage, beg for food and money
Hoovervilles • Unemployed and homeless people begin living in shantytowns named after President Hoover
Hoovervilles and Families Hoover was blamed primarily for the depression People who could not pay their mortgage needed alternative housing Villages named “Hoovervilles” Family- some break under the strain of the depression 1. Men- commit suicide and go into depression, use to taking care of the family most can’t find jobs leave their families. 2. Women- find jobs sewing, maid service, resented by their husbands. 3. Children- poorly fed, schools close, poor health, teenagers leave home looking for jobs.
Psychological Effects of the Great Depression 1928–1932, suicide rate rises over 30% Admissions to state mental hospitals triple People give up health care, college, put off marriage, children Stigma of poverty doesn’t disappear; financial security becomes goal Many show great kindness to strangers Develop habit of saving and thriftiness
Dust Bowl • Large dust storms hit the plain states scattering soil and destroying crops; no money for farmers • Caused by farmers overproduction of crops and a drought in Middle America
The New Deal • Program for reviving the economy during the Great Depression • Begun by President Franklin D. Roosevelt • Made up of the three r’s – relief, recovery, reform
Tennessee Valley Authority • Created by Roosevelt as one of the major public works projects of the New Deal • Built a system of dams for hydroelectricity in the south • Created hundreds of jobs
Second New Deal • These were the programs FDR started after the programs from the original New Deal failed to end the Great Depression
The Wagner Act • The law established collective bargaining rights for workers • Prevented companies from banning unions or firing union members
Social Security Act • One of the most important laws to pass has three parts 1. Retirement for people 65 an older 2. Unemployment insurance 3. Aid paid to families with disabilities and children
Eleanor Roosevelt Most active first lady in history – wrote newspaper columns, gave speeches, traveled the country Served as FDR’s social conscience She led the fight in America for Women’s, African-American and Human Rights
Huey Long Huey Long- A senator and former governor of Louisiana he was immensely popular in his home state and America He wants to help the poor by taxing the wealthy to provide new programs to help the poor get out of poverty He challenges FDR for the Democratic nomination but is killed by an assassin the same year
Court Packing Bill Supreme Court- strikes down several New Deal laws as unconstitutional “Court-packing bill”- Roosevelt proposes that the president be allowed to appoint a new justice for each member over 70.5. Reaction- Congress and the Press are outraged at Roosevelt for trying to tamper with the system of checks and balances. Roosevelt backs off his idea
Neutrality Acts By 1938 the American government is controlled by Isolationists who pass the Neutrality Acts: Prohibits the sale of weapons and travel by Americans to countries at war Forbids the extension of trade or loans to nations at war
A. Phillip Randolph Civil Rights leader of the 30’s and 40’s Threatened a march on D.C. before WWII, forcing FDR to ban segregation in government jobs and the defense industry Forces President Truman to ban segregation in the military in 1948
Pearl Harbor • U.S. naval base in Hawaii • Attacked by Japan unexpectedly on December 7, 1941 • United States declares war on Japan and enters World War II
Japanese-American Internment Camps • After Pearl Harbor, the United States racists fears led the country to put 120,000 Japanese Americans in concentration camps
Lend-Lease Act Passed after Pearl Harbor, the U.S. sends military equipment and supplies to its Allies during World War II Britain, France, Soviet Union and China all receive aid
War Mobilization Millions of men volunteered after Pear Harbor to fight World War II Factories- were converted from consumer goods to military goods
Rationing for WWII Rationing- everything went to the war, so Americans were only allowed a small portion of key items that were needed for the war Americans donate metals, newspapers, rubber, clothes, paper to the war effort.
Women Work for the War Factories-millions take the place of men and build the machines of war. Equality-first time women are seen as equal to their male counterparts. Will eventually lead to greater rights for women. Rosie the Riveter- symbol of the American women’s war effort.
D-Day D-Day- codename for Operation Overlord, Allied troops landed in Normandy, France The largest sea invasion in history, German troops were caught off guard an unable to push back the invasion This was the beginning of the end for Germany in WWII
Battle of Midway Battle of Midway- Led by Admiral Nimitz, the U.S. sinks four Japanese Aircraft carriers to the American one. Turning Point in the war against the Japanese who never fully recovered from the loss of the aircraft carriers and aviators from this battle. Mass Production replaces our losses and puts the pressure on Japan.
Fall of Berlin One of the final battles in the European Theater of WWII The Soviet Union storms the city; bloodiest battles of the war Hitler and most of his key leaders commit suicide during the battle Ends the War in Europe