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A Time of Crisis. Death, famine, war and disease Europe in the 1300s and 1400s. Focus Question. How did the combination of plague, upheaval in the Church, and war affect Europe in the 1300s and 1400s?. Black Death. ♦Bubonic and Pneumonic Plagues ♦Europe—1300s and 1400s

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a time of crisis

A Time of Crisis

Death, famine, war and disease

Europe in the 1300s and 1400s

focus question
Focus Question

How did the combination of plague, upheaval in the Church, and war affect Europe in the 1300s and 1400s?

black death
Black Death

♦Bubonic and Pneumonic Plagues

♦Europe—1300s and 1400s

♦Killed about 33% of the population of all of Europe.

♦Normal life in Europe

breaks down—

people are afraid

and many people die.

♦Many people did not understand how the disease spread and looked to witchcraft or magic (2 things which were not favored by the Church).

♦Some people actually started believing that

the Jews were

behind the spread

of the Plague and

many were killed.

♦Some people even tried to find cures that actually spread the Plague.

♦Many people, noticing

that the Plague was

spreading only in the

cities, headed for the

rural areas, leaving

everything behind.

Doctors believed the Plague was caused by God, and often told it’s victims to go to Confession, and to confess their sins.

♦Since the Church clergy usually provided assistance, many clergy died—taking with them much of knowledge that Europe had at that


♦The Plague, as it spread,

caused more and more fear—

the hysteria caused people to

do irrational things.

♦As more and more people died, the cost of labor increased significantly

♦This caused inflation (rise in the cost of items)

all over Europe.

♦It would take over

a century for Europe

to recover after from

the Plague.

upheaval in the church
Upheaval in the Church

♦The replacements for the priests, monks, and nuns who died during the Plague were less than ideal.

♦Many were not trained properly, or they were just corrupt people who found this opportunity to get at the wealth and power of the Church.

♦The Popes were forced to move to France (Avignon), under French domination.

♦Other people elected “rival popes” in order to try to not have the Church influenced by the French.

♦Great Schism— split in the Church

♦Some people sought change in the Church as it was becoming more corrupt.

♦Some members of the

Church started to seek

out “heretics” to have

them pay for their sins-

usually with their lives.

♦The Christian Church

was in chaos.

the hundred years war
The Hundred Years’ War

♦This series of battles, between England and France, started when English kings started to claim the right to rule on the French throne.

♦Some French people

supported the

English, while others

did not.

♦The war lasted from

1337 to 1453.

♦Most of the battles,

during the war, took

place in France,

leaving the country

very devastated.

♦The longbow (English), the crossbow (French), and the cannon were all technologies of this war.

♦As the war moved on, it appeared that the French would eventually lose the war, as large losses started to pileup.

♦The success of the longbow, which was used by the English, had been devastating to the French.

♦As things were looking bad for the French, a young lady (age 17) came to the court of Charles VII, who was the uncrowned king of France.

♦This young lady,

Joan of Arc ,

convinced Charles that

God had sent her to help

save the French.

♦Charles allowed Joan to lead some of the French troops into battle— she inspired the French.

♦With Joan’s

leadership, the

French started to

win more battles.

♦The English

captured Joan,

had her tried for witchcraft, and she was burned at the stake.

♦Joan’s death inspired the French even further, as she was seen as a martyr.

♦The French go on

the offensive.

♦With a powerful new

weapon, the cannon,

the French attack English

castles, driving most of the

English out of the country.

impact of the hundred years war
Impact of the Hundred Years’ War

♦Although France had driven the English out, there really was no “winner”.

♦Both countries had lost a lot of lives.

♦The economies of both countries, if not all of Europe, were ruined.

♦The French had a growing sense of nationalism—this allowed the kings to extend their power.

♦In England, the kings would give up the “power of the purse” due to the war.

♦Medieval society changed—knights are no longer a match to the new weapons.

♦From this point on, monarchs would start building standing armies with professional soldiers.

♦It would take over 100 years for Europe to recover from the devastation of the war, along with the Black Death.

focus question1
Focus Question

How did the combination of plague, upheaval in the Church, and war affect Europe in the 1300s and 1400s?