Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations In the early 1900’s archaeologist began to dig in the Indus River Valley of Pakistan. They unearthed small clay bricks, small clay seals, Figurines, and other artifacts. A civilization the flourished 4,500 years before was discoveried
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations • The Indus valley is located in South Asia or the Indian subcontinent. • The Indian subcontinent is the largest peninsula that extends into the Indian Ocean.
Sect. 1 Indus Valley Civilizations • Present day India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka(Island Nation) and the mountain nations of Nepal and Bhutan. • The mountain range in the north limited the contacts with other lands.(Himalayas & Hindu Kush) • Left India to develop a distinct culture • Hindu Kush acted as a gateway to migrating and invading peoples • People of Indus plains depend on monsoons and floods for their crops
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations Natural Features Define Region • The Indian subcontinent is divided into three regions • First in the Gangetic Plains in the North • Second the dry Deccan plateau • Third the coastal plains on either side of the Deccan
Sect.1Indus Valley Civilizations • The Gangetic plain lies south of the Himalayas. • This region is watered by the mighty rivers: Indus River, Ganges River, Brahmaputra River. • These rivers carried snow melt to the plains • Allows for farming in the region
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • The Deccan in a plateau • Raised area of land • Lacks the snow melt and other rivers for irrigation • With very little water this region is very dry
Sect 1.Indus Valley Civilizations • The coastal plains are separated from the Deccan plateau by the Western and Eastern Ghats • River and heavy seasonal rains provide water for farmers
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations Monsoons affect Climate • A defining feature of Indian are the Monsoons • Seasonal winds that blow from a certain direction for part of the year • October the winter monsoon blows from the northeast • Brings hot, dry air that withers crops • In mid-June, the summer monsoon blows from the southwest • Picks up moisture of the Indian Ocean and drench the land with downpours
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • The monsoons shape everyday life in India • People welcome the rains to water their crops. • If the rains are late, famine and starvation may occur • If the rains are too heavy, deadly flooding will occur.
Sect. 1 Indus Valley Civilizations Indus Civilizations Rises and Falls • About 2,600 BC, the earliest South Asian civilization emerged in the Indus River Valley • Modern day Pakistan.
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations • The Indus Civilization flourished for about 700 years • Since the discovery in the 1920’s the cities began to emerge from beneath the landscape • Several Indus sites have been discovered and no names of Kings and Queens have been found
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • NO Written remains records, literature and accounts of famous victories • The Indus Valley civilization covered the largest area of any civilization until the rise of the Persia Empire more than a 1,000 years later
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations Well-planned Cities reveal Organized government • Five large cities have been discoveried since the 1920’s • Hundreds of smaller cities have also been studied • The Indus cities of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa • Believed to be twin capitals
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • Harappa & Mohenjo-Daro • Prosperous civilization along Indus River (appx. 2500 BCE) • Had cities w/ grid patterns, running water • Mainly farmers, but did trade some • Written records have yet to be deciphered • Civilization ended around 1500 BCE • Either flood or invasion
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • Large cities • Three mile in circumference • Each city included large warehouses for storage • Mohenjo Daro and other cities were well ogranized • Long, wide main streets and large rectangle blocks • Houses were built with baked clay bricks
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • Harappa sites used unbaked bricks and mud • Indus Houses had a complex plumbing systems • With baths, drains, and water chute that led into sewers beneath the streets. • Evidence showed a well organized government
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations Making a living by farming and Trading • Most people in the Indus civilization were farmers. • They grew a wide variety of crops • Wheat, Barley, melons and dates. • First people to weave cotton into cloth • Some people were merchants and traders • Their ships carried cargo of cotton cloth, grain, copper, pearls, and ivory combs
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • Sailed to the middle east by hugging the coast of the Arabian Sea • Develop a writing system that was unique to the region Religious Beliefs Develop • Clue like statues and images on clay seals gave some views on the religion of the Indus Valley people
Sect. 1Indus Valley Civilizations • Believed to be polytheistic. • A mother goddess of creation • Viewed certain animals as sacred • Buffalo and the Bull Indus Civilization Declines • By 1900 Bc the way of life began to decline • Crude pottery replaced fine works of earlier days
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations • The use of writing stopped • Mohenjo-Daro was abandoned • The population of the Indus cities declined • Historians are not sure what happen to the people of Indus Valley • Invaders overran Indus cities • Damage to the local environment • Cutting down of too many trees
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations • Tons of river mud was found in the streets of Mohenjo-Daro • Suggests a massive flood • Other evidence points to a massive earthquake
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations Aryan Civilization Develops During the Vedic age • Beginnings • Indo-European (light skinned) people, invaded from North of the Black sea between 2000 BC to1500 BC • Travelled through the passages in northwestern India Aryans emerge in India • These nomads belonged to one of many speaker of a Indo European language • These nomads intermarried with local people (Aryans) • Blended the nomad culture with earlier Indian culture
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations • The early Aryans built no cities and left very little evidence behind • Much of what we know comes from the Vedas • Vedas – “Books of Knowledge” – tell us about Aryan society & religious beliefs • A collection of hymns, chants, ritual instructions and other religious teachings • The Aryan priest memorized the Vedas thousands of years before they were ever wrote down. • This period of time is called the Vedic Age (1500 BC to 500BC)
Sect.1 Indus Valley Civilizations From Nomadic Life to Farming • Gave up the nomadic way and settled into villages • The Aryans spread eastward by 800BC • They learned how to make Iron axes and weapons • Loose organization of tribes; led by Rajah (chief) • Most skilled war leader, elected by a assembly of warriors • Consider advice from a council of Elders • Fought with other Rajahs for control of trade • Cattle was important to early Aryans – used for diet & trade/economy; eventually cows become sacred • Paternalistic society (men dominated) • Sanskrit – early Aryan speech, eventually becomes writing
Caste System • Caste System is the rigid social system of India • Divided into 4 main varnas or social classes • Brahmans (priest) • Kshatriyas (warriors/nobles) • Vaisyas (artisans, common people) • Sudras (unskilled workers, servants) • Each varna is subdivided into smaller groups called jati • Jati formed according to occupation • Some mobility within the varna, but NO MOBILITY from varna to varna • Lowest group (not even identified as a “class”) are the “untouchables”
Sect 1 Indus Valley Civilization Epic Literature Tells about Aryan Life • Indian civilization consisted of many rival kingdoms • Sanskrit is used to write sacred texts began • Aryans maintained a strong oral tradition • Two epic poems. • Mahabharata and Ramayana
Sect. 1 Indus Valley Civilization Mahabharata tells of warfare and Religion • India’s greatest epic poem • Nearly 100,000 verses • A story of five royal brothers who lose their kingdom to their cousins • After a great battle that lasted 18 days the royal brothers regain their kingdoms and restored peace to India • Other versus tell about the importance of duty over personal desires
Sect. 1 Indus Valley Civilization Ramayana teaches values of behavior • Much shorter but just as important • The story of a hero (Rama) and his bride (Sita). Sita is kidnapped by the demon-king Ravana. • The rest of the story tell how Rama finally rescues Sita with the aid of the monkey general Hanuman • Rama is the model of virtue and ideal king • Sita is the model of a loyal and obedient wife
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism Thousands of years ago two major religion emerged from ancient India • Hinduism and Buddhism • The ethical and spritual message of both religions profoundly shaped Indian civilization The Beliefs of Hinduism Develop • Hinduism has no single founder • No sacred text
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism • It grew out of the overlapping beliefs of the diverse groups who settled India. • Aryans added the Indus Civilization to their own gods and goddess • Hinduism became one of the most complex religions of the world • Countless gods and goddess and many forms of worship existed side by side.
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism One Force underlies Everything • Hindus believe that everything is part of the unchanging, all powerful spiritual force called the Brahman • Each can take many shape human and animal • Some hindus also worship various forms of powerful god, Shakti
Hindu Gods Brahma – The creator
Hindu Gods Shiva – The Destroyer
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism Sacred texts reveal Hindu Beliefs • Hindu teachings were recorded in the sacred text of the Vedas • Upanishads are section Vedas that address mystical questions related to Hinduism • These sacred text use vivid images to examine complex ideas about the human soul and the connectedness of all life.
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism Achieving Moksha is the goal of life • Every person has a essential self • Atman • The ultimate goal of existence, Hindu believe is achieving moksha • Union with brahman • To do this an individual must free themselves from selfish desires that separate them from brahman
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism • Most people cannot achieve moksha in one lifetime • Hindus believe in reincarnation • Rebirth of the soul in another bodily form • Reincarnation allows people to continue working towards moksha through several lifetimes • A person can come closer to achieving moksha by obeying the laws of Karma • All actions of a person’s life that affects his or her fate in the next life.
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism • To Hindus, all existence is ranked • Humans are closest to brahman, then comes animals, plants, and objects like rocks or water • People who live virtuously earn good karma and are reborn at a higher level of existence • Those who acquire bad karma and are reborn into suffering at a lower level. • The image of the wheel symbolizes this
Sect.2 Hinduism and Buddhism • Hinduism stresses the importance of dharma • Religious and moral duties of an individual • According to class, occupation, gender, and age. • Hindus also follow a key moral principle of ahimsa • Nonviolence
Buddhism • Many Hindus were dissatisfied with their religion (wanted more spirituality) • Siddhartha Guatama • Born as Kshatriyan Prince appx. 566 BCE • Lived sheltered from pain of the world • Gives up life of luxury at age 29 and wanders India for 7 years looking for meaning of life • Gains enlightenment – becomes known as Buddha (Enlightened One)
4 Noble Truths • Pain, suffering, frustration and anxiety are inescapable parts of human life • Suffering and anxiety are caused by human desire and attachments • People can understand these weaknesses and triumph over them • This truth is made possible by following a simple code of conduct, the eightfold path • Eightfold Path • Know truth • Resist evil • Say nothing harmful • Respect life • Work to help others • Free mind from evil • Control thoughts • Practice meditation
Buddhist Beliefs • Buddhists reach nirvana (a state of union with the universe) by mastering Eightfold Path • Buddhists reject the caste system, they believe you can reach enlightenment in any life • Reincarnation still exists, but only for those that don’t reach enlightenment – one could escape the pain of life/rebirth by becoming enlightened • There are 2 major branches of Buddhism • Theravada- close in practice to original Buddhism • Mahayana- they worship Buddha as a divine being & savior
Classical Indian Empires • Mauryan Empire (321-184 BCE) • Began by Chandragupta Maurya • Largest empire of classical India; had strong army & spy network • Most famous leader was Ashoka • Warlike leader who eventually converts to Buddhism • Provided public support via hospital care, roads & rest stops, etc. • Laws provided in local languages instead of formal Sanskrit • Gupta Empire • Began in 320 CE, lasts until appx. 535 CE • Gupta rulers used marriage & negotiation to increase empire • Known as the “Golden Age” due to intellectual accomplishments • 1st university system w/ 3 libraries, lecture halls, observatory, etc. • Advances in science including gravity, brain surgery, astronomical observations, the Earth being round, & smallpox inoculation • Mathematical advancements of #1-9, 0, pi, decimal system, infinity
Sect.3 Powerful Empires of India Northern India was often a battleground for Rival rajah fought for control of the Gangetic Plain • Chandragupta Maurya forged India into a empire The Maurya Empire Creates a Strong Government
Sect.3 Powerful Empires of India Chandragupta Forges an Empire • Chandra Gupta first gained control in the Ganges Valley • His grandson and his son pushed south, adding much land to his empire • Chandragupta maintained order through a well-organized government • Official built roads, Harbors, collect taxes and manage state-owned Factories and shipyards • Fearful of his enemies, he trained women as guards
Sect.3 Powerful Empires of India Asoka Rules by Moral Example • Most honored Maurya emperor • Chandragupta’s Grandson • Fought a long blood war in Deccan region • Horrified by the slaughter of 100,000 people • Converted to Buddhism • Rejected violence and ruled by moral example • He sent out missionaries to spread Buddhism across India and Sri Lanka
Sect.3 Powerful Empires of India • Had stone pillars set up across India • Offered moral advice and a just government Division and Disunity Set In • After Asoka’s death in 185 BC, Maurya power began to decline • Rival princes fought for power of Gangetic Plain • India seldomly remained united for long