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Corn Production - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Corn Production. AGRO 1033 Field Crops. Corn - botany. Zea mays C4 plant Summer annual Monoecious 3 root systems: - seminal (temporary) - secondary (main system) - brace roots (support). brace roots. secondary roots. seminal roots. Panicle, florets with sterile ovaries.

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corn production

Corn Production

AGRO 1033

Field Crops

corn botany
Corn - botany
  • Zea mays
  • C4 plant
  • Summer annual
  • Monoecious
  • 3 root systems:

- seminal (temporary)

- secondary (main system)

- brace roots (support)

brace roots

secondary roots

seminal roots

slide3

Panicle, florets with

sterile ovaries

Ear, only has floret

pistol: stigma, style

(silk), and fertile

ovary (kernel).

‘ear leaf’

corn botany4
Corn - botany
  • Zea mays
  • Five main kernel types:

- flint: popcorn, ornamental

- flour

- waxy

- sweet (white, yellow, mixed)

- dent

slide5

flint

flour

sweet

yellow dent

corn botany6
Corn - botany
  • Zea mays
  • ‘open’ pollinated
  • Hybrids
  • Transgenic types:

- herbicide, ie., RR

- insecticide, ie., ‘Yieldguard’ (Bt)

- others coming!

corn botany7
Corn - botany
  • Zea mays
  • Early, mid-season varieties
  • Main growth stages:
    • emergence
    • V5-7 (apply mid-season N fertilizer)
    • internode elongation (IE) or ‘jointing
    • Reproduction:

tasseling

silking

anthesis (pollen shed)

‘milk’ – ‘soft dough’ – ‘dough’ – early dent –

late dent

Black Dot (physiological maturity)

slide8

dent

flint

flour

corn history
Corn - History
  • Central Mexico origin
  • Early signs of cultivation about 8000 years ago
  • Spread to SW, SE, NE and then to great plains and Canada.
  • Disseminated overseas in early 1500’s
  • No known close relative, best match is a perennial grass called ‘teosinte’
corn history10
Corn - History
  • Early types were flints and flours
  • Considerable variability due to open pollination
  • Dent types emerged about 1500 years ago
  • 1940’s: Hybrid corn seed production revolutionized corn production, 2-3 fold yield increases seen in some areas!
corn history12
Corn - History
  • Hybrid seed corn development:

- develop stable ‘inbred’ lines

- cross two different inbred lines

- plant the seed produced (F1 hybrid)

- offspring will yield 2-5X parents!

  • New developments are herbicide resistant (glyphosate and some others) and internal insecticide producing transgenic varieties.
corn utilizations
Corn - utilizations
  • No. 1. Animal feed.
  • No. 2 high fructose corn syrup
  • No. 3, maybe soon to be No. 1 or 2, ethanol
  • Others:
    • Starch
    • Corn oil
    • Hybrid seed
corn production hybrid selection
Corn Production – Hybrid selection
  • Yield – No. 1

- look at experiment station yield

trials

- Transgenic traits, ie., ‘RR’, ‘Bt’

- Maturity, ie., early, mid-late

- Cost, availability of seed

- Disease resistance

corn production planting
Corn Production - Planting
  • EARLY! (late March to late April. Why?)

- reduce late-season

insect pressure

- catch early rains

- avoid late summer

heat

- higher yields, less

input costs

corn production planting17
Corn Production - Planting
  • EARLY! (late March to late April.)
  • Seeding rates from 22,000 – 36,000
  • 30 – 38 in rows
  • Try to get uniform stand and emergence
  • May need insecticide
corn production fertility
Corn Production - Fertility
  • SOIL TEST!
  • Lime in fall
  • P, K pre-plant
  • N: rates vary from 180-250 lbs N/acre
  • Apply ½ pre-plant, the other ½ sidedress at V5-7

Pre-plant N, P, K

Side dressing liquid N fertilizer.

corn production insects
Corn Production - Insects
  • Soil insects:

- field history

- insecticides:

- in-furrow

- over the top

Corn rootworm

wireworm

corn production insects20
Corn Production - Insects
  • Foliar insects:

- Plant early!

- crop monitoring

- insecticide only

when needed, rare

- Bt transgenics

(corn borers, ear-

worms,

armyworms.

Corn borer

Corn borer ‘shot holes’

corn production insects21
Corn Production - Insects
  • Foliar insects:

- Plant early!

- crop monitoring

- insecticide only

when needed, rare

- Bt transgenics

(corn borers, ear-

worms,

armyworms.

Corn earworm

Armyworms!

corn production disease
Corn Production - Disease
  • Managed by good agronomic practices, fungicide seed treatments, and variety resistance. Fungicides rarely used or needed.

anthracnose

Ear smut!

corn production weeds
Corn Production - Weeds
  • Conventional hybrids:
    • Pre-emergence herbicides
    • Post-emergence herbicides if needed
    • Cultivation at side-dress

Transgenic RR:

    • All glyphosate
    • Glyphosate + pre’s

Pre-emergence herbicides

Post-emergence herbicides

corn production harvesting
Corn Production - Harvesting
  • Corn picker.
  • 19-22% moisture
  • Dried down to < 15%
  • Stored
corn jokes
Corn Jokes

‘High breed corn’

corn jokes26
Corn Jokes

Corn Porn

(‘naked’ ears!)

corn jokes27
Corn Jokes

Beer corn

okay enough of the corny jokes
Okay, enough of the ‘corny’ jokes.

Any questions or comments?