Corn Zea mays Animal & human food alcohol (Jack Daniels) 1st in U.S., 4th in world 80% in “corn belt” Every state except Alaska Iowa = 22% Origin: Mexico or Central America No wild form known Teosinte closest relative Developed by American Indian through mutation, natural selection and mass selection. 100% commercial hybrids
Types of Corn Sweet Corn Dent: Widely grown Depression in crown - rapid drying of starch Flint: Hard starch - soft center International – feed and flour Flour: Soft starch. American Indians Waxy (wx): 100% amylopectin vs 75% in dent Food processing (puddings, etc.) Sweet (su, sh2, ae): Dent corn mutation - 2X sugar Human consumption Popcorn: Hard endosperm explodes by steam Human consumption Popcorn
Specialty Corns White Corn Human consumption Recessive gene + modifiers Yellow Food-Grade Dent hybrids - hard starch High-Amylose >50% amylose - food (pudding, etc.) High Oil: 3% - 4% 6.5% - 7.5% Livestock feed - >calories High Lysine (opaque-2) Soft starchy Lysine 0.26% 0.37% QPM Quality Protein Maize – lysine + tryptophan Non-GMO No transgenic gene. Organic White Corn Yellow Food Grade
Illinois and U.S. Corn Acres Illinois 12.6 million in 2008 (-5%) 13.2 million in 2007 (+14%) 11.3 million in 2006 U.S. 86.4 million in 2008 (-5%) 90.5 million in 2007 (+15%) 76.9 million in 2006 Why? Ethanol Price Wheat Soybeans
Corn Production Establishing Your Annual Yield Goal Realistic yield goal for soil? Look at 5 - 6 year yield records. Drop highest yield. Drop lowest yield. Average remaining yields. Add 5 – 10 bu/A to target. Input costs? Fuel Seed Pesticides Fertilizer especially N Expected price/bu.
Continuous Corn$$$$$$ Average yield loss of 9% ranging 2% - 23%. Problems: • Crop Residue – < tillage >yield drag • Nitrogen– 30# to 50# to replace soybeans • P and K – corn uses > P < K, ok year 1 • Stand Establishment – cold, wet, disease and insects • Disease Risk – > NCLB, GLS, stalk and ear rot. • Insect Risk – > roorworm, wireworms, grubs, maggots, slugs. • Hybrid Selection – specific hybrid availability • Weed Management – fewer herbicides, annual grass and Johnsongrass. • Harvest Issues - > equipment demand, delayed harvest • Costs - > fuel, fertilizer, pesticide expense. Critical Decision Point = $?.??/bu.
Corn after Corn • Select Right Hybrids seedling vigor, switch hybrids, GLS, NCLB, corn following corn differences Bt better on corn after corn • Later planting best • Higher populations • Manage Residue • Avoid compaction • Furrow closing problem increases • Select productive fields with better drainage • Need 60 lb./A more N • Scout fields Expect disease Expect insects Expect weeds Different weeds - rotate herbicides
Corn after Corn Disease & Insects More leaf blights, stalk and ear rot, rootworm Not breaking pathogen cycle Pathogens in corn residue Cooler & wetter seedbed Leaf Blights: NCLB – cooler regions, after silking, gray-green cigar shape 1-6” long GLS – warm, humid, fog - losses up to 50% Yellow–tan Rectangular lesions with parallel edges, .2-2” long Stalk Rot: Internal tissue dies, lodging, gray-green rolled leaves, spongy stalks Ear Rot: Gibberella (reddish), Fusarium (white-pink), Diplodia (gray-white) Aspergillis (green-yellow) toxic aflotoxin produced Rootworm: July-September weekly scouting – 1adult/20 plants = potential damage next year Control: Headline , Quadris
Corn Hybrid Selection Yields range +/- 50 bu/A Selection: Yield, yield, yield Maturity - locally 105RM Use 105RM to 110RM Standabilty - stalks and roots Disease resistance How many hybrids? 3 - 5 hybrids grown Test 5 new ones Use on farm, industry, university results Rotate out poorest and in best 25% early – 50% mid – 25% late
Corn Maturity Full-season highest yield potential Longer period to silking. Physiological maturity 30-35% Black layer Maturity is relative rating “Days” 105RM Compared to known maturity GDD = growing degree days Accumulated temperature GDD = (H + L)/2 -50oF H max = 86oF, L min = 50oF
GDD’s and Corn Maturity Growth StageGDD’s Emergence 120 2-leaf 290 6-leaf (tassel initiation) 630 10-leaf 950 14-leaf 1,150 Tassel Emergence 1,275 Silking 1,400 Dough Stage 1,950 Dented 2,450 Black Layer 2,700 Illinois early hybrid = 2,300 to 2,400 Illinois full-season hybrid = 2,800 to 2,900 Planting after May 1st reduces these by 6.5/day.
Corn Traits Corn Borer Rootworm RoundUp Corn Borer + Rootworm Corn Borer + RoundUp Rootworm + RoundUp Corn Borer + Rootworm + RoundUp Added Seed Insecticide Many options. Options: YieldGard, RoundUp Ready, Herculex YieldGard & Herculex = Bacillus thuringiensis RoundUp Ready = Agrobacterium strain CP4 20%refuge for corn northern states and 50% refuge in southern states
Corn Fertility Total N Target Old: (1.2 lbs N/acre x target bu) - legume N – manure N – incidental N Recommended rate: Following soybeans = 122 – 162 lbs N/acre Following corn = 137 – 174 lbs N/acre New N calculator (MRTN): http://extension.agron.iastate.edu/soilfertility/nrate.aspx Or http://soilfertility.unl.edu/ Available P Levels: Need 30 – 45 lbs./A No P applied if P1 values higher than 60 – 70. Available K Levels: Need 260 – 300 lbs./A No K applied if levels above 360 – 400 Depends on CEC Effect of corn starter on wheat. Phosporous Nitrogen On Corn
Corn Planting Date Last week in April +/- one week. Plant full-season early mid Yield declines slowly up to May 10. May 10 – May 20 loss is 0.5 bu/A/day May 20 – June 1 loss is 1-1.5 bu/A/day Rest = 50% yield Early planting best. Use common sense Growing point underground 2-3 weeks Germination at 50oF Iowa Corn Yields Wisconsin Corn Yields Frost Damage
Corn Planting Depth 1-1/2 inches early 1-3/4 normal 2-1/2 late >2-1/2: Reduced germination 1/3 delay 5 day = 6% loss 1/3 delay 8 day = 15%loss 1/3 delay 12 day = 30% loss Longer to pollination Wetter at harvest Planting Decision: Make decision at planting by considering seed bed and 10 day weather forecast. Corn needs 50oF at three inch depth. 17 % plants 2 leaf diff = 4% loss 17% plants 4 leaf diff = 8% loss Rootless Wonder Uneven Planting Depth
Plant Spacing Within the Row 354 farms – 4.5” to 10”+ Purdue U.: 1% loss/1” spacing deviation Best farmers +/- 2” no loss Ave. farmer +/- 3”-5” 1% - 3% loss 1,000 A. x 200 bu/A x 2% loss x $3 corn = $12,000 Pioneer: 3.4 bu/A loss per 1” deviation Ontario: 1.5 bu/A loss per 1” deviation Yield loss from seed depth variation > seed spacing
Speed Kills However, increased speed: Increases uneven spacing between plants. Increases doubles. Varies planting depth. Wisconsin: 5+ day emergence delay from depth variation Emergence occurs over 3-5 days
Corn Plant Population Highest population supported by soil. Normal rainfall. No excessive lodging or barren plants. Best Plant Population: Does not change with planting date. Adjust seed drop very early (+2,000)and very late (-2,000). Highest yield from 30,000ppa (+/-). Intercept 95% of sunlight after pollination. Hybrid differences. Expect 5% - 15% fewer plants at harvest. Disease and insects.
Adjust Population Rates in a Field? Best case = + $4.00/acre if: No additional cost Exact information on field response If response not known = +$1.00 Seed cost saving from low yield areas = +$3.00 - $4.00 SO! Time and cost of experimenting with each field section makes variable rate profitability unlikely. Best chance - field extremes. Heavy clay high ground, black soil bottom ground. How can you test variable rate economically in 2008?
Illinois Row Spacing 80% in 30 inch rows Some in 36 inch rows Very little in <30 inch rows 20 inch rows: No Illinois advantage Adv. Minnesota and Michigan Hybrid response important! Minnesota hybrids vs Illinois hybrids? Problem: Equipment cost versus yield increase. Yield increase = 4bu/A x $4.00/bu = $16.00/A = x $3.00/bu = $12.00/A = x $2.00/bu = $ 8.00/A Corn heads have to be custom made.
Estimating Plant Population Old Method: Count plants in 1/1,000 of acre (17.5 ft.) Preferred Method: Measuring wheel or by hand Count 150 plants and measure the distance Divide distance (ft) by factor: Row Spacing (in.) Factor 20 3,920,400 30 2,613,600 36 2,178,000 Example: If 150 plants in 124 feet, then: 2,613,600 / 124 = 21,077ppa
Replant Decision Don’t be hasty! Crust, frost or hail. Growing point below ground. What is population remaining? What is expected yield? Replant decisions based on: Expected yield difference. Additional input costs.
Affect of Weather Stress on Corn Flooding: Lack of oxygen – respiration. Hot: Young plants dead 5 – 6 days. Cool: maybe >1 week. 6 to 8 leaf stage >1 week. Hail: Not much you can do. Greatest loss at tasseling. Cold: Frost or temps < low 40’s. Lower yields and slower drying rates. Drought: Sensitive 2 weeks before pollinating to 2 weeks after. Heat: Temp up to 100oF not a problem if moisture available. Blasting at pollination.
Corn Vegetative Growth Stages VE: germination to 1st rounded leaf emerges (spiking). 4 – 14 days or 120 GDD’s, growing point below ground 3-4 weeks V1: 1st leaf matures, collar appears (15-20 leaves total). V5:ear shoots andtassel initiation V6:growing point above ground, stem elongates, 6 – 8 leaves destroyed V9: growth rate increases, ear shoots and tillers visible V12-V18:kernels/ear (spike) decided Days to Tasseling = (V stage -20)(2) = (V15-20)(2) = 10 V12brace root formation V17 tip of top ear shoot and tassel. V18silks visible if husk removed. Silking in 1 week. VT: full vegetative tassel apparent, full plant height VT to R1: plant most vulnerable to hail.
Management and Vegetative Stages VE: growing point below ground 3-4 weeks V1-V2: 1 week,nutrient requirement small V3-V5: 2 weeks, hail or frost little yield reduction, caution with cultivation, leaf, ear and tassel shoots initiated (8 inch plant), ear number determined V6-V7: 3 weeks,roots 18-24 inches from plant, fertilizer needed, growing point above soil, N side dress up to V8 V8-V9: 4 weeks,nutrient deficiencies appear and restrict leaf growth, flooding can kill plants, ear shoot at every node except top 6-8, only 1-2 ears form, hail reduces yield by 20% V10-V11: 5 weeks after emergence, new leaf every 2-3 days, water and nutrient demand high, P & K needed near roots V12-V13: 6 weeks, stress reduces kernel number and era size, early hybrids move faster – smaller ears – higher population needed, cultivation detrimental, brace roots developing
Management and Vegetative Stages V14-V15: 7 weeks, critical seed determination, number of kernels determined, stress has serious effects, tassel full size not visible, root depth 5-8 feet V16-V17: 8 weeks, moisture stress 2 weeks before or after silking results in large yield loss, irrigation most effective, V18: full size plant, silks from ear base emerge 1st tip 2nd, prolific plants more stable VT: 2-3 days before silking, fully extented tassel, pollen late morning or early evening,
Management and Vegetative Stages R1 Silking: 55-66 days after emergence, silks visible, pollen shed, fertilization in 24 hours, silks grow 1-1.5 inches/day, 2-3 days for pollination to complete, stress results in poor seed set, largest yield reduction, K complete, P & N uptake rapid R2 Blister: 12 days post silking, kernels white & plump, steady seed fill, irrigation beneficial, 85% moisture R3 Milk: 20 days, pericarp yellow, starch white, 80% moisture, cell division complete, yield loss due to kernel abortion
Management and Vegetative Stages R4 Dough: 26 days, pasty starch, 50% dry weight, 70% moisture, stress reduces test weight R5 Dent: 36 days, kernels dented, milk line visible, frost reduces west weight, 55% moisture, full dent 48 days, embryo morphologically mature, select hybrid with maturity 10 days before 1st killing frost date R6 Physiological Maturity: 55 days, maximum dry weight, black layer formed (tip base in 10 days), silage harvest begins, 30-35% moisture, grain harvest at 20-26% requires drying, store shelled grain at 13- 15% moisture
Corn Reproductive Growth Stages R1: pollination pollen peaks midmorning for 5-8 days silk grow 1 – 11/2 inches at night R2: blister or brown silk, endosperm cell division, R3: milk, cells enlarge, yellow, liquid starch deposited R4: dough, starch pasty, embryo distinct R5: dent, starch becomes hard from top of kernel Milk Line – separation between liquid and hard starch. R6: physiological maturity, 30% - 35% moisture Black Layer – hard starch crushes vascular cells.
Estimating Yields Value? As early as two weeks after pollination. Method: Go 25 rows into field. Go 100 yards from end of field. Measure 17.5 feet (1/1,000 acre). Count ears not nubbins. Take 3rd, 6th, and 10th ears. Count kernel rows and kernels per average row. Multiply rows x kernels/row for each ear and obtain 3 ear average. (Ears in 1/1,000 acre) x (kernels/ear) / 90 = bu/A Repeat every 5 acres.
Cereal Growth Stages All stages are determined by the main stem. • Germination: emergence of radicle and coleoptile. • Seedling: germination to 1st tiller. • Tillering: side shoots from crown. Crown – compressed node at soil level • Jointing: Internodes elongate No new tillers formed, all leaves present. Flag Leaf – last leaf formed • Booting: spike or panicle expands inside upper leaf sheath. • Heading: cluster of florets form and emerge from leaf sheath. • Flowering: pollination. • Milk: starch has watery and whitish consistency. • Dough: starch semi-solid • Maturity: Physiological Maturity – 25% - 35% moisture. • Harvest: 13% - 14% moisture
Wheat Durum Wheat Triticum aestivum: common wheat (hexaploid) Triticum durum: durum (tetraploid) Others: Einkorn and Emmer 1st in world, 4th in U.S. 50% in developing countries. Human consumption. Origin in southwest Asia Spring wheat not adapted to Illinois. Matures 2 weeks later than winter. Kernel fill in hot weather. 50% to 60% of winter wheat. Bred in northern states. Plant winter by September 19-21 Common Wheat
Wheat Characteristics Self pollinated Short-hairy auricles Spike inflorescence Bearded (awns) or beardless Cool, temperate, low rainfall Long-day plant. Generally 3 kernels/spikelet Auricles Bearded Beardless
Wheat Acreage Illinois 450,000 in 2007 (-4%) 470,000 in 2006 U.S. 46.8 million in 2008 (+4%) 44.5 million in 2007 (+10%) 40.0 million in 2006 Some industry breeding, mostly universities.
Wheat Classes Soft Red Winter Wheat: Low –medium protein Pastry, cake, biscuit Eastern and midwest Hard Red Winter Wheat: 40% crop, high protein (10-13%) Bread Great Plains Hard Red Spring Wheat: Highest protein (13-16%). Excellent bread. North central Hard White Wheat: Similar to hard red, but lighter color Yeast breads, tortillas, oriental noodles Soft White Wheat: Low protein high yield. Pastry, crackers, cakes Western and northeast Durum: High protein (12-16%) Hardest – macaroni, spaghetti White flour lower in protein than whole wheat flour. Basis of low carbohydrate diets. Low grade Flour Fine White flour for bread - bleached Granular becomes Cream of Wheat from hard spring, cereal from hard winter wheat, and Durum for spaghetti and macaroni. 85%
Wheat Quality Gluten + embryo = protein Endosperm = starch Gluten: Mixture of proteins combined with starch in the endosperm. 80% of the proteins in wheat. Responsible for elasticity of dough "chewiness" of baked products. What part of the kernel effects the protein to starch ratio?
Wheat Production Conventional tillage. Double crop with soybeans. Fertilizer: Removes more N than corn. N apply 57 lb/A – 85 lb/A P at 22 lb/A and K at 8 lb/A Seeding Rate: 40 to 90 lb/A Depth: 1 to 2 inches Depends on coleoptile length. Irrigation: Little, why? 50% yield increase Herbicides: Least of major crops, why? Disease: Stem rust
Hessian Fly Resistance Tall fescue harbors fly 4 genes Increasing problem In 2000, fly overcame resistant genes Mechanism: Fly saliva injected into wheat 97 “superfamilies” of genes Gene for gene Protein turns on and off wheat genes Wheat gene for own destruction Liquid for larva to feed on Defense: Genes barricade cells deny food Fortify cell walls ooze liquid causing ulcers in fly starve to death
Rye Secale cereale Origin in Asia Hay, pasture, cover crop- late in fall Low seed costs. Fast establishment Flour and alcohol. Canadian Club, Crown Royal, Jim Beam, Wild Turkey Lower fertility spike Short auricles Spike inflorescence University varieties developed in 1970’s. Minnesota and Wisconsin
Rye Acreage Least acreage due to limited market. Likes cool regions, hates heat. Only winter rye suited for Illinois. Low yield Short season – 2 weeks earlier than wheat Heavy straw Poor grain quality
Triticale Rye (male) x Wheat (durum female) F1 generation is sterile. Wanted rye winter hardiness in wheat. Limited value. Not well adapted to Illinois. No milling and baking qualities. Only several thousand acres. Livestock feed or forage. Why grow it? Wheat – Rye – Triticale Grain
Oats Avena sativa Feed and straw. Oat bran - “health food”. Protein close to soybean protein. Animal feed and straw. Domesticated weed in barley field. Asia origin. Spring oats best, very little winter. Best in cool moist regions. Plant by April 15th in northern Illinois Needs water, little sunshine, hates heat. Rotation or companion crop. No auricles, panicle inflorescence. University of Illinois a leader in developing oat varieties.
Barley Hordeum vulgare (6-row) Hordeum distichum (2-row) 4th cereal crop in world Oldest cultivated crop Origin Asia or Ethiopia Livestock feed and malting. Likes cool, temperate, semiarid, N Ill. Most productive, dependable dryland crop. Mostly spring some winter. No malting market for Illinois barley. Double crop with corn. Clasping auricles, spike inflorescence. Very susceptible to lodging. Winter hates wet feet.
Sorghum Sorghum bicolor 3rd in Illinois (S 1/3). Originated in northeast Africa Short-day C4 Xerophyte: hot semiarid areas. Extensive secondary root system. Small leaf area with waxy coating. Better than corn at <120 bu/A Warm season 70oF soil temperature. Best at 80oF-85oF with 60oF minimum. More salt tolerant than corn. Less affected by late planting and high temp. Emergence slower than corn. No ligules or auricles. Panicle inflorescence. Animal and bird feed, food grade
U.S. Sorghum Acreageand Types Acreage unchanged. Most grain sorghum hybrids from kafir-milo crosses. Types: Grain Sorghum: Milo: more tillers and drought res. Kafir: Dwarfing genes – 3-5 ft tall Broomcorn: novelty Grass Sorghum: Sudangrass – forage, green manure Johnsongrass – weed Sweet Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor): Syrup Ethanol: syrup (15-18%) bypasses fermentation Hot, dry, cool nights, 50-75 lbs. N 1,000 gal/acre Greenbug
Sorghum Production Problems: Grazing: Prussic acid poison 1 week after frost and drought. No Continuous Sorghum: Sugar microbes use N reduce 2nd year yields. Depletes soil of nutrients and moisture. Needs rotation or fallow. Perennial crop needs defoliants. Yields dropping. Bird resistance. Advantage: Requires less irrigation than corn. Better in low yield conditions. Better on droughty soils.
Rice Oryza sativa 2nd in world, southern U.S. Human food -90% Asia Origin unknown. Hydrophyte: Part of life cycle under water. Classified by length of grain. Japonica: short grain and plant, lodging-resistant. Indica: longer grain and tall plant, lodging. Warm season (70oF+) Long ligules, hairy auricles Panicle inflorescence
Rice Production: Rainfed Lowland: 17% of production Poorer regions Lowland (Paddy): Flooded continuously Upland: 4% of production. Slash and burn agriculture. Flooded during vegetative. Flood Prone: Direct seed or transplant. Flooded until harvest. Irrigated: 75%of production
Rice Milling Rough: Whole kernel + hull Parboiled: Soaking, steaming, drying Transfers nutrients from bran and hull to endosperm Milled: Detaches hulls Brown: kernels without hull Head: whole or broken hulled kernels ¾ in length Second Head: broken kernels ½ in length Brewer’s: smallest broken kernels Polished: removes bran