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Corn

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Corn

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  1. Corn • Single most important crop in the US • 20% of all crop land is planted in corn • Corn belt • Iowa, Illinois, Nebraska, Minnesota, Indiana, and Ohio • The corn belt accounts for 80% of all corn grown in the US.

  2. Corn • Is grown in every state except Alaska. • Corn was produced as early as 6000 BC • It can be grown at below sea level to 13,00 feet. • It is a warm season crop

  3. Uses Feedstuffs • 12% Silage • 83% Feed, Seed • 5% Mixed Feed

  4. Foodstuffs • Wet Milled – Starch, Syrups, Oils • Dry Milled – Meal, Flour, Hominy Grits, Breakfast Cereals, Corn nuts

  5. Types of Corn pg 589 • Dent – Silage, Grain • Flint – Hard • Flour – Indian Corn • Pop – Extreme form of flint corn • Sweet – Mutant of dent corn • Waxy – Soft kernel, adhesives, baby food, puddings, pie filling, tapioca, clam chowder. • Pod - Primative • Syrup - Karo

  6. Commercial Varieties • Open-Pollinated –OP’s, save and replant the seed. • Hybrid – 1877 the 1st. Controlled cross • Can’t replant seed

  7. Degree Days (Heat Units) • 100-150 to emerge • 1400-1500 to reach Anthesis (flower) • Another 1200 – 1300 to reach physiological maturity

  8. Calculating a degree day • (Max. Temp. + Min. Temp.) - 50 _______________________                 2 50 = base temp for corn Used to determine planting dates.

  9. Growth Stages – Table 21-1 • Vegetative • VE = emergence • V1 = first leaf • V2 = second leaf • V3 = third leaf • Vn = nth leaf • VT = tasseling • Reproductive • R1 = silking • R2 = blister • R3 = milk • R4 - dough • R5 = dent • R6 = physiological maturity

  10. Seed bed prep • Fine, Firm, Moist • Disk stubble 1-2x • Chisel • Disk 1x – ring roller • Pre-irrigate • (Fertilize – Dry) • Disk 1-2x • (NH3) • Herbicide, Cross disk, Harrow • Plant

  11. Seed bed – Double crop • Lime, Gypsum, Potash • Disk 1x • Chisel • Disk 1x • Pre Irrigate w/100# N • Disk – Herbicide • Cross Springtooth • Plant in 24 hours • Ring Roll

  12. Seed bed – single crop • Fall: • Disk 2x • Chisel 2x • Plane 2x • List Jan: Cultivate – Lilliston or alloway Spring : Plant

  13. Seeding Rates • Ranges between 25,000 to 45,000 plants per acre. • 35,000 is optimum (high plantings are pushing 200 bushels per acre) • Silage is seeded more closely than this rate.

  14. Crop rotation • 2 year = corn – small grain • 3year = corn – small grain – clover rotation • 4 year = corn – oats – wheat – clover rotation

  15. Fertilization • Nitrogen 300-325 lbs. • Phosphate 120 lbs. • Potash 270 lbs. • Sulfur 40-45 lbs. • Magnesium 50 lbs. • Calcium 60 lbs. • Iron 3 lbs. • Manganese 2.5 – 3 lbs. • Zinc .5 lbs.

  16. Irrigation • 18 – 22” of water. • Critical periods are early tassel, silking, and blister kernel stages. • for most corn, that would be 40 – 80 days after emergence.

  17. Weed management • Roundup Ultra/RT • Lasso • Atrazine • 2,4-D • Basagram • Dual • Prowl

  18. Harvesting • Kernel Moisture 34% • Grain corn at 20% moisture • Sweet corn = milk stage (21 days after silking) • Silage corn = when ears are glazed & most leaves are on the plant, slight dent. • Fresh Corn at 70% moisture. (can/frozen) • 5-6% sugar & 10 – 11% starch

  19. Grades

  20. Diseases • Common Rust • Corn Smut • Fusarium Ear Rot • Furarium Stalk Rot

  21. Common Rust • Symptoms • Common rust causes pustules that may appear on any aboveground part of the corn plant but they are most abundant on leaves. The pustules, which may erupt and become powdery, occur nearly simultaneously on both leaf surfaces. They are golden brown to cinnamon brown, becoming black as the spores mature.

  22. Corn Smut • Common smut is easily recognized by the tumorlike galls that form on any aboveground plant part. The conspicuous galls that replace kernels are covered with a greenish-white papery tissue.

  23. Fusarium Ear Rot • white to salmon-pink discoloration of individual kernels or groups of kernels scattered over the ear.

  24. Furarium Stalk Rot • Corn plants with Fusarium stalk rot exhibit rotting of the roots, plant base, and lower internodes. The rot normally begins soon after pollination.

  25. Insects • Beet Armyworm • Western Striped Armyworm • Corn Earworm • Cutworm • Grasshopper

  26. Western yellow striped Armyworm

  27. Beet Armyworm

  28. Corn Earworm

  29. Cutworm

  30. Grasshopper