Q2 US History Notes Packet Spring Valley HS
CHANGES ON THE WESTERN FRONTIER AMERICA SETTLES THE WEST- LATE 19TH CENTURY
Why did Natives Need Buffalo? • horses brought by the Spanish allowed natives to ________ and hunt • the buffalo provided for basic needs BUFFALO WERE USED FOR FOOD, SHELTER AND CLOTHING
Who pushed the Natives out? • The white settlers who pushed westward had a different idea about ________ownership • Settlers believed the land to be unsettled and rushed to claim it A COVERED WAGON HEADS WEST
Why were settlers and Natives clashing? • 1834 – Government says Great Plains is “Indian lands” • 1850s- Government changes mind, natives get much _____________lands • 1864 - Massacre at Sand Creek; US Army attack killing 150 native women and children
What is the Dawes Act of 1887? • The Dawes Act of 1887 – break up reservations and ____________ natives into American life • By 1932, 2/3rds of the land committed to Natives had been _______________ FAMOUS DEPICTION OF NATIVE STRUGGLE
What led to the destruction of the buffalo? • The most significant blow to tribal life on the plains was the destruction of the buffalo • __________ for sports • 1800: 65 million buffalo • 1890: less than 1000 remained SHIRTLESS HUNTER WITH HIS KILL
What is a cattle drive? • Ranching became increasingly ______________ • Texas rangers learned how to handle the Texas _____________ from Mexican rangers
VOCABULARY BORROWED Vanilla, bronco, mustang, chaps, mosquito, pronto, tuna, stampede, tornado, chili, cigar, shack, savvy, siesta, wrangler, lasso, lariat, ranch, corral, burro, canyon, bandit, fiesta, guerrilla, hurricane, matador, plaza, rodeo, vigilante, desperado, cockroach, buckaroo MEXICAN “VAQUEROS” (COW MAN) PROVIDED THE VOCABULARY FOR THE AMERICAN COWBOY
How did the demands for beef change? • After the Civil War the demand for __________ surged • Urbanization and the rise of the _____________ was instrumental in the increase of beef consumption POSTCARD OF CHICAGO UNION STOCK YARDS
How did cow-towns help cattle drivers? • Abilene, Kansas became famous for being a place where the Chisholm Trail met the _____________ • Once in Abilene the cattle would board rail cars for destinations across the country Chisholm Trail Chisholm Trail
What ended the open range? • ___________, bad weather, and the invention of ______________ were responsible for the end
Who was settling the plains? • 1862 – Congress passed Homestead Act which allowed 160 free ________ to any “head of household” • Completion of the transcontinental _________ helped with settling
The transcontinental railroad was completed in 1868. The Central Pacific and Union Pacific railroads met in Promontory Point, Utah and laid a Golden Spike
What is an exoduster? • ____________ Americans who moved from the post-Reconstruction South to Kansas were called Exodusters
What hardships were encountered? • hardships – ___________, floods, fires, blizzards, locust plagues, and ______________ • 1% of the nation’s population in 1850 lived out west to almost 30% in 1900 LOCUST SWARM
DUGOUTS & SODDIES DUGOUT SODDY
What is the Morrill Act? • The federal government financed ___________ education • The Morrill Acts of 1862 and 1890 gave federal __________ to states to help finance agricultural colleges
Who is imigrating? • -Old Immigration • Western and Northern Europe • -New Immigration, 1890 • Eastern and Southern _____________ • Germany, Italy, Russia, Poland (to East Coast) • __________Immigration • Come to America to mine, worked on railroads, then as farmers (West Coast) • Hispanic Immigration • Come to the South and East for political freedom “America…We were so near it seemed too much to believe. Everyone stood silent- like in prayer…Then we were entering the harbor. The land came so near we could almost reach out and touch it…everyone was holding their breath…” ~Rosa Cavalleri, Italian immigrant
Where did immigrants go upon entering America? • -difficult journey • 1-3 weeks in steerage with diseases and not much food • -___________Island, NY • immigrant processing • Physical exam, government inspection (criminal record) • -___________Island, SF • Harsher examinations, detentions Waiting in line at Ellis Island in New York. This was the major immigrant in-processing station in the nation, as 17 million immigrants passed through its gates to gain entrance to the United States.
What awaited immigrants in America? • -Culture Shock • Need a home and job in a brand new culture • ethnic communities • Similar language/customs • -_____________Pot • Mixing together of all cultures by assimilation • -_________________ • Favoring native-born Americans over immigrants • Chinese Exclusion Act 1882 • Banned Chinese immigration for 10 years Once in America, new immigrants had to endure physical examinations (to check for disease and lice), as well as governmental examinations, which checked your criminal record in your previous country. While many were admitted, some were sent back home.
How did Urban areas grow? • -urban life • 1/12 in 1840--1/3 by 1900 • -immigrant settlement • In cities for ________ housing and available jobs • -decline of farmers • new technology, fewer workers • -closing of the frontier • People move to the cities • -industrialization • ______________ jobs • -cultural opportunities Most immigrants settled in and around the major cities because of their proximity to jobs, as well as allowing cultural groups to stay together. When this happened, places like “Little Italy” and “Chinatown” sprang up across major cities.
URBAN PROBLEMS • -poor housing • row houses • Single-family dwellings that shared side walls with other similar houses • ____________________ • Multi-family dwellings; over-crowded, unsanitary • -____________________ • Mass transit to move people to jobs (street car, subway) • -rising crime rates • Small police forces and the poor are very desperate
URBAN PROBLEMS • -few city services • _____________ • Indoor plumbing rare, water unsafe to drink • sanitation • Manure, sewage and trash in streets, foul air • _______________ • Wood dwellings with candles and oil lamps • Small fire departments with limited water supply • -pollution and disease • Lack of sanitation
“’One half of the world does not know how the other half lives.’ That was true then. It did not know because it did not care. The half that was on top cared little for the struggles, and less for the fate of those who were underneath, so long as it was able to hold them there. “Suppose we look into a tenement on Cherry Street…Listen! That short hacking cough, that tiny helpless cry…The child is dying of measles. With half a chance it might have lived. But it had none. That dark bedroom killed it.” ~Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives
Who raised awareness to how immigrants were living? • -Social Gospel • Christian theme of helping the less fortunate • Salvation Army • -Jacob __________ • “How the Other Half Lives” • Book about the urban poor written to get help • -Jane _____________ • Hull House, Chicago • Settlement Houses • Community centers in slums that provide services to the poor Jacob Riis and Jane Addams crusade for the poor to improve their urban living conditions in the major cities. “Presently she established a kindergarten, a gymnasium, evening classes, clubs for young people and clubs for old people, and a day nursery where workingwomen might leave their children. As her work advanced she experienced the need of more room and several buildings were added to the original brick Hull House.”
The Gilded Age A glittering exterior turns out to be a corrupt political core with a wide gap between the rich and poor “All that glitters is not gold…”
What did the corrupt govt do? • -________________ • Illegal use of political influence for personal gain • -kickbacks • Taking illegal payments for services • -______________ • Using fake names and the votes of the dead The construction of the New York County Courthouse involved extravagant graft and kickbacks. The project cost taxpayers $13 million, while the actual construction cost was only $3 million. The difference went into the pockets of a political boss and his followers.
What is a political Machine? • Political machines helped the poor to gain voting loyalty • -____________ dominates an area • Gained control by offering services in exchange for political/financial support • -patronage, loyalty, ________ • Get their people elected, then appoint others with patronage • Government not helping the poor, city bosses will • -boss controlled many jobs, services “I’ve been called a boss. All there is to it is having friends, doing things for people, and then later on they’ll do things for you…You can’t coerce people into doing things for you—you can’t make them vote for you. I never coerced anybody in my life. Where you see a man bulldozing anybody he don’t last long.” ~”Big Jim” Pendergrass, Kansas City “Boss”
What did the Tweed Ring Do? • William “Boss” __________ • -controlled NYC • -Tammany Hall ring • Stealing money, corrupt police • Notorious • -exposed by political cartoonist Thomas ____________ • Exposed the Tweed Ring corruption through a series of cartoons • Broken in 1871, Tweed put in jail for fraud and extortion “I don’t care so much what the papers write about me—my constituents can’t read; but…they can see pictures!” ~”Boss” Tweed on Thomas Nast’s cartoons depicting his Tweed Ring corruption
How was the patronage system eliminated? • -patronage system puts _________________ people in positions • Leads to graft and corruption • Rutherford Hayes Campaigns for political reform • Merit system - People should be qualified to hold government offices • ________________Act passes • Civil service jobs tested President Hayes wants to end the corruption seen during the Grant presidency by eliminating the use of the patronage system. Why would some people be against this?
Industrial Development Which American industries do you think make the most money? Why?
Why the 2nd Industrial Revolution? -by 1880, U.S. is world’s leading producer of goods - ________________labor force - abundant coal supply - _________________mining - discovery of oil in US - railroaddevelopment The United States, nearing the turn of the century in the 1880s and 1890s, teemed with immigration from many European nations, as well as many Chinese immigrants. These immigrants provided a steady work force, as well as a cheap work force, as employers could get away with paying them less per hour.
What is a Laissez-Faire government? - government allows _________________ to do whatever it wants -unlimited immigration supplied labor -high _________________ protected American business -public financing of railroads for shipping goods
What new innovations and technologies were available in late 1800s? -telephone Alexander Graham Bell -light bulb Thomas _____________ -electric power -Nikola Tesla—AC Power -__________________Process makes mass production of steel possible (skyscrapers) -typewriter paves the way for new jobs for women - Motion picture – silent film
Iron is a dense metal, but it is soft and tends to break and rust. It also usually contains other elements, such as carbon. Removing the carbon from iron produces a lighter, more flexible, and rust-resistant metal—steel. The raw materials needed to make steel were readily available; all that was needed was a cheap and efficient manufacturing process. The Bessemer Process increased iron refining into steel by blasting compressed air through molten iron to burn out excess carbon and impurities (which make iron rust). This improved (and cheaper) method of steel production led to a steel boom. Major industries, such as the railroads prospered from this, as well as architectural projects.
Which Entrepreneurs were making money? -John D. Rockefeller Standard ____________ -Andrew Carnegie US _______________ -J.P. Morgan bankers banker -Cornelius Vanderbilt railroads -Dupont Family steel industry -James B. Duke tobacco industry -George Westinghouse power and electronics
What are the advantages of big business? • -_______________ • Electricity and innovations make production quick/cheap • -economy of scale • The more you produce, the easier and cheaper it is • -manager system • Appoint qualified employees to oversee production • Productivity Study (Taylor) • Limit movement = increase ___________________ Andrew Carnegie perfects production and company organization to make major profits in his steel company.
What are the disadvantages of Big Business? • -unfair competition • Difficult for ____________ businesses to compete • -corruptionand _________________ • No unemployment or welfare • Citizens needed jobs • Could fire them easily • Destroyed labor unions Many Americans began to distrust the big businessmen and the trusts they set up, claiming that they limited competition and held control over government officials and Congressmen. How is this represented in the cartoon presented above?
How did the public react to Big Business? • Some unhappy with rich getting richer and poor getting poorer • Social Darwinism • -survival of the _________________ • -the best businesses survive • - justified their wealth And while the law of competition may be sometimes hard for the individual, it is best for the race, because it ensures the survival of the fittest in every department. ~Andrew Carnegie
What are the types of big business? • -horizontal integration • Buy out similar competing producers to control industry • -_______________integration • Earn more money by buying out your suppliers • Own all phases of production from start to finish • -____________________ • Company controls all production and sales (high prices) • -trust (Rockefeller) • Corporations unite to reduce competition Horizontal and Vertical Integration allowed big businessmen to increase their profits even more by limiting the amount of competition available.
McDonald’s Corporation: Example of Vertical Consolidation Sample : _________ Phase: __________ Phase: ___________ Phase: ___________ Phase: ___________ Phase: ___________
McDonald’s Corporation: Example of Horizontal Consolidation Sample : _________ Business 1: _______ Business 2: ________ Business 3: ________ Business 4: ________ Business 5: ________
What is a __________Baron? • -extreme profits made by business owners • Public calls for regulation • Big business practices exposed • -Philanthropy grows: • Donate _____________to charities and back to society • Gospel of Wealth (Carnegie) • Donate money to society (book) “The man who dies leaving behind him millions of available wealth, which was his to administer during life, will pass away “unwept, unhonored, and unsung’…Of such as these the public verdict will then be: ’The man who dies thus rich dies disgraced.” ~Andrew Carnegie, 1889 Some saw the big businessmen as Robber Barons, who stole from society and took advantage of workers at their own benefit. Others, however, saw them as philanthropic “Captains of Industry.” What do you think?
Some big businessmen, like Andrew Carnegie, believed in the “Gospel of Wealth,” in which they donated their money back to society. Carnegie was the most generous of these, donating 90% of his profits back to society by building centers for the arts across the country, like Carnegie Hall, pictured above in NYC. “There is no class so pitiably wretched as that which possesses money and nothing else.” “Surplus wealth is a sacred trust which its possessor is bound to administer in his lifetime for the good of the community.” ~ Andrew Carnegie
Although Rockefeller kept most of his assets, he still gave away over $500 million, establishing the Rockefeller Foundation, providing funds to found the University of Chicago (seen below), and creating a medical institute that helped find a cure for yellow fever. “The only question with wealth is, what do you do with it.” “Next to doing the right thing, the most important thing is to let people know you are doing the right thing.” ~John D. Rockefeller
The Standard Oil Company took a different approach to mergers: they joined with competing companies in trust agreements. Trusts turned their stock over to a group of trustees—people who ran the separate companies as one large corporation. In return, the companies gained large dividends on profits. Trusts were not legal because they limited competition and free trade. What is the Sherman Anti Trust act of 1890? • Made it illegal to form a trust that interferes with free trade • _________________ law - never really broke up trusts “Competition is a sin.” ~John D. Rockefeller “What a funny little government!”