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EO 002.01 Effective Communication (Dari). 01/09/2013. Importance of Lesson (Dari). Insert Dari. Communication is the act of transferring information from one place to another: vocally (using voice) written (using printed or digital media such as books, magazines, websites or emails)

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importance of lesson dari
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • Communication is the act of transferring information from one place to another:
    • vocally (using voice)
    • written (using printed or digital media such as books, magazines, websites or emails)
    • visually (using logos, maps, charts or graphs) or
    • non-verbally (using body language, gestures and the tone and pitch of voice).

www.skillsyouneed.com

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importance of lesson dari1
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • How well information can be transmitted and received is a measure of how good our communication skills are.
  • The ability to be able to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital life skill.
  • Good interpersonal communication skills enable us to work more effectively in groups and teams

www.skillsyouneed.com

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importance of lesson dari2
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • The ability to be able to communicate information accurately, clearly and as intended, is a vital as a Pharmacy Technician.
  • It allows you gather information quickly and accurately.
  • It allows you to better understand situations (e.g. patient questions)
  • It allows you to express yourself more clearly and be understood.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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importance of lesson dari3
Importance of Lesson(Dari)
  • Insert Dari
  • The goal of this lecture is to improve your communication skills to make you more effective in your communication with patients and other healthcare providers.

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overview eo 001 05 dari
Overview EO 001.05(Dari)
  • Listening
    • Active Listening
    • Ineffective Listening
  • Verbal communication
  • Non-verbal communication
  • Opening and Closing Communications
  • Lesson Review
  • Scenarios (not graded)
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listening d ari
ListeningDari

Listening:

  • Listening is the ability to accurately receive messages in the communication process.
  • Listening is key to all effective communication, without the ability to listen effectively messages are easily misunderstood – communication breaks down and the sender of the message can easily become frustrated or irritated.www.skillsyouneed.com
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listening d ari1
ListeningDari

In North America: Adults spend an average of 70% of their time awake engaged in some sort of communication:

  • 45% listening
  • 30% speaking
  • 16% reading
  • 9% writing
    • Might be different in Afghanistanwww.skillsyouneed.com
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ListeningDari

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ListeningDari
  • The majority of communication time should be spent listening not talking.

“If we were supposed to talk more than we listen, we would have two tongues and one ear.” Mark Twainwww.skillsyouneed.com

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listening d ari4
ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening:

  • Stop talking: If you are talking you are not listening.
  • Prepare your self to Listen: Relax. Focus on the speaker. Don’t think of other things.
  • Put the speaker at ease: Use gestures or words to encourage them to continue to speak.
  • Remove distractions: Don’t shuffle papers, look out the window, watch TV.
  • Empathize: Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Don’t have preconceived ideas.
  • Be patient: Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
  • Avoid personal prejudice: Don’t become irritated by the persons communication style.

www.skillsyouneed .com

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listening d ari5
ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening Continued:

  • Listen to the tone: Volume and tone add to what someone is saying.
  • Listen for ideas: Link together pieces of information that are being said. (e.g. words, volume, tone…)
  • Wait and watch for non-verbal communication: Gestures, facial expressions, eye-movements.
    • Do not jump to conclusions about what you see and hear. You should always seek clarification to ensure that your understanding is correct. (Taught later)

www.skillsyouneed .com

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active listening d ari
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Active listening involves listening with all senses and giving full attention to the speaker.

“The most basic and powerful way to connect to another person is to listen. Just listen. Perhaps the most important thing we ever give each other is our attention.” Rachel Naomi Remen

www.skillsyouneed.com

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active listening d ari1
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Interest can be conveyed to the speaker by using both verbal and non-verbal messages
    • E.g maintaining eye contact, nodding your head and smiling, agreeing by saying ‘Yes’ or simply ‘Mmm hmm’ to encourage them to continue.
  • By providing this 'feedback' the person speaking will usually feel more at ease and therefore communicate more easily, openly and honestly.www.skillsyouneed.com
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active listening d ari2
Active ListeningDari

Active listening:

  • Listeners should remain neutral and non-judgmental. (e.g don’t take sides or form opinions)
  • Listeners should not be tempted to jump in with questions or comments every time there is silence.
  • Active listening involves giving the other person time to explore their thoughts and feelings, they should, therefore, be given adequate time.www.skillsyouneed.com
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active listening d ari3
Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
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active listening d ari4
Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
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ineffective listening d ari
Ineffective ListeningDari
  • It is common, when listening to someone else speak, to be formulating a reply while the other person is still talking.
  • However, this means that we are not really listening to all that is being said.
  • The result is that assumptions are made and conclusions reached about the speaker's meaning that might be inaccurate.www.skillsyouneed.com
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ineffective listening d ari1
Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Trying to listen to more than one conversation at a time (including television, radio, or phone)
  • You find the communicator attractive/unattractive.
  • You are not interested in the topic/issue discussed and become bored.
  • Not focusing and being distracted.
  • Feeling unwell or tired, hungry, thirsty or needing to use the toilet.
  • Identifying rather than empathizing. Understanding what you are hearing but not putting yourself in the shoes of the speaker. www.skillsyouneed.com
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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Sympathizing rather than empathizing. Sympathy is not the same as empathy, you sympathise when you feel sorry for the experiences of another, to empathise is to put yourself in the position of the other person.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. Be open-minded to the ideas and opinions of others. This does not mean you have to agree.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • You make judgments. “This person is not very bright or under qualified so there is no point listening to what they have to say.”
  • Previous experiences – We respond to people based on personal appearances, welcomes and/or previous interpersonal encounters. If we stereotype a person we become less objective and therefore less likely to listen effectively.www.skillsyouneed.com
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reflecting d ari
ReflectingDari
  • However good you think your listening skills are, the only person who can tell you if you have understood correctly or not is the speaker.
  • Reflecting is the process of paraphrasing and restating both the feelings and words of the speaker.
  • The purposes of reflecting are:
    • To allow the speaker to 'hear' their own thoughts and to focus on what they say and feel.
    • To show the speaker that you are trying to perceive the world as they see it and that you are doing your best to understand their messages.
    • To encourage them to continue talking.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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reflecting d ari1
ReflectingDari

Two Main Techniques of Reflecting:

  • Mirroring
  • Paraphrasing
    • involves using other words to reflect what the speaker has said
  • Reflecting does not involve you asking questions, introducing a new topic or leading the conversation in another direction.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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clarification d ari
ClarificationDari

Clarification involves offering back to the speaker the essential meaning, as understood by the listener, of what they have just said. Thereby checking that the listener's understanding is correct and resolving any areas of confusion or misunderstanding www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

Clarification is important in many situations especially when what is being communicated is difficult in some way. Communication can be 'difficult' for many reasons, perhaps sensitive emotions are being discussed or you are listening to some complex information or following instructions.

(Common in a Pharmacy Environment) www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

Purpose of Clarification is to:

    • Ensure that the listener's understanding of what the speaker has said is correct.
    • Reassure the speaker that the listener is genuinely interested.
  • A listener can ask for clarification when they cannot make sense of the speaker's responses.
    • “I'm not quite sure I understand what you are saying.”
    • “I don't feel clear about the main issue here.”
    • “When you said ........ what did you mean?”
    • “Could you repeat ...?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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ClarificationDari

The best questions are open-ended since they give the speaker choice in how to respond. Closed questions allow only very limited responses.

Open Questions

  • If your role is to assist a speaker to talk about an issue, often the most effective questioning starts with 'when', 'where', 'how' or 'why'. These questions encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “When did you first start feeling like this?”
    • “Why do you feel this way?”

Closed Questions

  • Closed questions usually elicit a 'yes' or 'no' response and do not encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “Did you always feel like this?”
    • “Were you aware of feeling this way?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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verbal communication skills d ari
Verbal Communication SkillsDari
  • Effective verbal or spoken communication is dependant on a number of factors and cannot be fully isolated from other important interpersonal skills such as non-verbal communication, listening skills and clarification.
  • Clarity of speech, remaining calm and focused, being polite and following some basic rules of etiquette will all help you communicate well.
  • The sound of a voice and the content of speech can provide clues to an individual's emotional state and a dialect can indicate their geographic roots. www.skillsyouneed.com
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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Effective speaking concerns being able to speak in a public context with confidence and clarity, whilst at the same time reflecting one's own personality.

Aspects of effective speaking include:

  • Accents. (Cannot affect)
  • Vocal production.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Production:

Volume

  • Some people have naturally soft voices and physically cannot bellow.
  • If the voice is raised too much, tonal quality is lost.
  • Instead of raising the voice it should be 'projected out'.
  • When talking to a group or meeting, it is important to never aim your talk to the front row or just to the people nearest you, but to consciously project what you have to say to those furthest away.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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verbal communication skills d ari3
Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Production:

Clarity

  • Some people tend to speak through clenched teeth and with little movement of their lips. It is this inability to open mouths and failure to make speech sounds with precision that is the root cause of inaudibility.

Variety

  • To make speech effective and interesting, certain techniques can be applied. Vocal variety can be achieved by variations in:
    • Pace
    • Volume
    • Pitch - Inflection – Emphasis
    • Pause

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Vocal Variety:

  • Pace: The speed at which you talk. If speech is too fast then the listeners will not have time to assimilate what is being said. Nevertheless, it is a good idea to vary the pace - quickening up at times and then slowing down – this will help to maintain interest.
  • Volume: By raising or lowering volume occasionally, you can create emphasis.
  • Pitch - Inflection - Emphasis: When speaking in public, try to convey the information with as much vocal energy and enthusiasm as possible. Emphasize certain words and phrases to convey their importance.
  • Pause: Pauses are powerful. They can be used for effect to highlight the preceding statement or to gain attention before an important message. www.skillsyouneed.com
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non verbal communication skills d ari
Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari
  • Interpersonal communication not only involves the explicit meaning of words, the information or message conveyed, but also refers to implicit messages, whether intentional or not, which are expressed through non-verbal behaviours.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari
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Non-verbal Messages Allow People To:

  • Reinforce or modify what is said in words. For example, people may nod their heads vigorously when saying "Yes" to emphasize that they agree with the other person.
  • Convey information about their emotional state.
  • Define or reinforce the relationship between people.
  • Provide feedback to the other person.
  • Regulate the flow of communication, for example by signaling to others that they have finished speaking or wish to say something.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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non verbal communication skills d ari2
Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Non-Verbal Communication Skills include:

  • Body Movements (Kinesics)
  • Posture
  • Eye Contact
  • Para-language
  • Closeness or Personal Space
  • Facial Expressions

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Body Movements (Kinesics)

  • Emblems: Gestures that serve the same function as a word are called emblems. For example, the hand placed over the heart signals sincerity.
  • Illustrators: Gestures which accompany words to illustrate a verbal message are known as illustrators. For example, the common circular hand movement which accompanies the phrase 'over and over again.
  • Affect Displays: These are facial expressions or gestures which show the emotions we feel.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Body Movements (Kinesics)

  • Regulators: Gestures used to give feedback when conversing are called regulators, for example head nods, short sounds such as 'uh-huh', 'mm-mm‘. Regulators allow the other person to adapt his or her speech to reflect the level of interest or agreement.
  • Adaptors: Non-verbal behaviours which either satisfy some physical need such as scratching or adjusting uncomfortable glasses, or represent a psychological need such as biting fingernails when nervous. Adaptive behaviours often accompany feelings of anxiety or hostilitywww.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Posture:

  • Posture can reflect people's emotions, attitudes and intentions
  • Open and Closed Posture: Someone seated in a closed position might have his/her arms folded, legs crossed or be positioned at a slight angle from the person with whom they are interacting. In an open posture you might expect to see someone directly facing you with hands apart on the arms of the chair. An open posture can be used to communicate openness or interest in someone and a readiness to listen, whereas the closed posture might imply discomfort or disinterest.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial/ body expressions of the speaker.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Eye Contact:

Eye contact is an important aspect of non-verbal behaviour. Its three main purposes:

  • To give and receive feedback: Looking at someone lets them know that the listener is focused.
  • To let a listener know when it is their 'turn' to speak: When a person has finished what they have to say, they will look directly at the other person.
  • To communicate something about a relationship between people: When you dislike someone, you tend to avoid eye contact. However, sometimes it is a sign of respect.www.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Para-language:

  • It relates to all aspects of the voice which are not strictly part of the verbal message, including the tone and pitch of the voice, the speed and volume at which a message is delivered, and pauses and hesitations between words. www.skillsyouneed.com
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Non-Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Closeness or Personal Space:

  • Every culture has different levels of physical closeness appropriate to different types of relationship, and individuals learn these distances from the society in which they grew up.
  • In today's multicultural society, it is important to consider the range of non-verbal codes as expressed in different ethnic groups. When someone violates an 'appropriate' distance, people may feel uncomfortable or defensive. Their actions may well be open to misinterpretation.

Facial Expressions:

  • Smiles show openness while raised eyebrows might show amazement or disbelief.www.skillsyouneed.com
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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Now that we have talked about the aspects of effective communication lets see how they are used together:

  • Opening Communication
  • Effective Listening
  • Reflecting and Clarifying
  • Closing Communication

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Opening Communication:

Appropriate greetings are usually expected:

  • Handshake
  • Introduce yourself
  • Eye contact

A friendly disposition and smiling face are much more likely to encourage communication than a blank face, inattention or disinterested reception.

www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari
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Effective Listening:

The following points are essential for effective and active listening:

  • Arrange a comfortable location conducive appropriate to the topic. (e.g private matter = private location)
  • Be prepared to listen.
  • Keep an open mind.
  • Avoid distractions if at all possible.
  • Delay judgment until speaker is finished.
  • Be objective.
  • Do not think of your next question while the other person is giving information.
  • Do not dwell on one or two points.
  • Don’t let prejudices associated with gender, ethnicity, social class, appearance or dress interfere with what is being said. www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Using Reflection and Clarification:

Reflecting often involves paraphrasing the message communicated to you by the speaker in your own words, capturing the essence of the facts and feelings expressed, and communicating your understanding back to the speaker

When clarifying what information was given make sure to use appropriate use of open and close ended questions.www.skillsyouneed.com

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Verbal Communication SkillsDari

Closing Communication:

  • The way a communication is closed or ended will, at least in part, determine the way a conversation is remembered.
  • Closing an interaction too abruptly may not allow the other person to 'round off' what he or she is saying so you should ensure there is time for winding-up. The closure of an interaction is a good time to make any future arrangements.www.skillsyouneed.com
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ListeningDari

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ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening:

  • Stop talking: If you are talking you are not listening.
  • Prepare your self to Listen: Relax. Focus on the speaker. Don’t think of other things.
  • Put the speaker at ease: Use gestures or words to encourage them to continue to speak.
  • Remove distractions: Don’t shuffle papers, look out the window, watch TV.
  • Empathize: Try to understand the other person’s point of view. Don’t have preconceived ideas.
  • Be patient: Never interrupt or finish a sentence for someone.
  • Avoid personal prejudice: Don’t become irritated by the persons communication style.

www.skillsyouneed .com

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ListeningDari

Ten Principles of Listening Continued:

  • Listen to the tone: Volume and tone add to what someone is saying.
  • Listen for ideas: Link together pieces of information that are being said. (e.g. words, volume, tone…)
  • Wait and watch for non-verbal communication: Gestures, facial expressions, eye-movements.
    • Do not jump to conclusions about what you see and hear. You should always seek clarification to ensure that your understanding is correct. (Taught later)

www.skillsyouneed .com

  • Insert Dari

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active listening d ari5
Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

active listening d ari6
Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

AFAMS

clarification d ari4
ClarificationDari

The best questions are open-ended since they give the speaker choice in how to respond. Closed questions allow only very limited responses.

Open Questions

  • If your role is to assist a speaker to talk about an issue, often the most effective questioning starts with 'when', 'where', 'how' or 'why'. These questions encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “When did you first start feeling like this?”
    • “Why do you feel this way?”

Closed Questions

  • Closed questions usually elicit a 'yes' or 'no' response and do not encourage speakers to be open and expand on their thoughts.
    • “Did you always feel like this?”
    • “Were you aware of feeling this way?”

www.skillsyouneed.com

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scenarios assessment dari
Scenarios (Assessment)Dari

Formative Assessment:

  • Not marked
  • Used to assess the students understanding of lectures material.
  • Instructors will provide guidance for each scenario.
  • Instructor will provide a debrief after each scenario question to highlight reasons why response was correct or incorrect.
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scenario one dari
Scenario OneDari
  • Have students pair up in groups of 3. They should decide their roles:
  • one teenager
  • one parent
  • one observer.

2. Provide the following scenario:

“The teenager wants a later curfew and the parent does not want to extend the curfew.”

  • Directions on next page.
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Scenario OneDari

3. The teenager and parent should try to use good listening skills to effectively communicate.

4. The observer will take notes on what each person did good or not so good and provide feedback.

5. The observer from each group reports back to the class about what was effective in their group

6. If time allows, ask a group that feels they did an extremely good job if they would like to re-enact their role play in front of the entire group.

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Active ListeningDari

Verbal Signs of

Active listening:

  • Positive reinforcement: casual words such as, “yes”. But do not use too often or it can become irritating to the speaker.
  • Remembering: Previous conversations, or patient names can show you are listening.
  • Questioning: Asking relevant questions.
  • Reflection: Closely repeating or paraphrasing what the speaker said to show understanding.
  • Clarification: Asking questions to ensure the message is understood.
  • Summarisation: Repeat a summary of what the speaker said in the listener’s own words.www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

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Active ListeningDari

Non-Verbal Signs

Of Active listening:

  • Smile
  • Eye contact (depends on the culture)
  • Posture: leaning forward while listening.
  • Mirroring: reflecting the facial expressions of the speaker.
  • Not distracted: not looking at the clock or watch, no fidgeting. www.skillsyouneed.com
  • Insert Dari

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scenario two dari
Scenario TwoDari

Joseph is driving in Kabul and can’t find the Chicken Street Restaurant. He stops and phones his brother for directions. His brother says quickly,

“You go down to the second traffic circle and make a right turn. I’m not sure of the street name. It begins with a W I think. Drive to the bridge located beside the Kabul Jewelers. It’s near a park. Turn right on the road immediately before the road splits into two roads. It has flowers planted there. It should be right on the corner. If you make it to the traffic circle you have gone to far”

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scenario two dari1
Scenario TwoDari
  • What was Joseph trying to find?
  • What should Joseph do at the end of the conversation to make sure he understands?
  • What poor communication technique did his brother use that made it difficult to understand the directions?
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scenario two dari2
Scenario TwoDari
  • What was Joseph trying to find?

Chicken Street Restaurant

  • What should Joseph do at the end of the conversation to make sure he understands?

REFLECT/ PARAPHASE the conversation and seek CLARIFICATION.

  • What poor communication techniques did his brother use that made it difficult to understand the directions?

Talking quickly which did not give Joseph a chance to seek clarification and paraphase during the converstation.

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scenario three dari
Scenario ThreeDari
  • Students may take notes if they want to answer the question at the end of the scenario.
  • Instructor will now cover or turn off the projector to read the scenario on the next slide. (Students should not see the scenario)
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Scenario ThreeDari

Instructor states:

“I drive the Main Street Bus. One day you (the student) get on the bus and you start to count:

  • At the first stop 5 people get on your bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 1 person gets off the bus.
  • You stop counting.”

Here is the question:

What color are the eyes of the bus driver?

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Scenario ThreeDari
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Instructor states:

“I drive the Main Street Bus. One day you (the student) get on the bus and you start to count:

  • At the first stop 5 people get on your bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 2 people get off the bus.
  • At the next stop 3 people get on and 1 person gets off the bus.
  • You stop counting.”

Here is the question:

What color are the eyes of the bus driver?

Answer:

State the colour of your eyes. You (Instructor) are the bus driver in the scenario.

  • Uncover or turn on the projector
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Scenario ThreeDari

For those that did not get the answer what aspects of poor active listening could explain why?

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Possible ReasonsDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Trying to listen to more than one conversation at a time
  • You find the communicator attractive/unattractive.
  • You are not interested.
  • Not focusing.
  • Feeling unwell or tired, hungry, thirsty or needing to use the toilet.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. (i.e. You thought it was going to be a math question)www.skillsyouneed.com
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AFAMS

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Ineffective ListeningDari

Barriers to Effective Listening

  • Sympathizing rather than empathizing. Sympathy is not the same as empathy, you sympathise when you feel sorry for the experiences of another, to empathise is to put yourself in the position of the other person.
  • You are prejudiced or biased by race, gender, age, religion, accent, etc.
  • You have preconceived ideas or bias. Be open-minded to the ideas and opinions of others. This does not mean you have to agree.

www.skillsyouneed.com

  • Insert Dari

AFAMS