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Unit 2/B: Chemical Interactions PowerPoint Presentation
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Unit 2/B: Chemical Interactions

Unit 2/B: Chemical Interactions

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Unit 2/B: Chemical Interactions

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  1. Unit 2/B: Chemical Interactions Chapter 5: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table Chapter 6: Chemical Bonds and Compounds Chapter 7: Chemical Reactions Chapter 8: Solutions Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  2. Chapter 5: Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties 5.1 Atoms are the smallest form of elements 5.2 Elements make up the periodic table 5.3 The periodic table is a map of the elements Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  3. 5.3 The periodic table is a map of the elements Before, you learned: The periodic table is organized into groups of elements with similar characteristics The periodic table organizes elements according to their properties Now, you will learn: How elements are classified as metals, nonmetals, and metalloids About different groups of elements About radioactive elements Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  4. Warm-up questions • Refer to the periodic table – how are each pair of elements related? • Calcium and barium • In the same group • Lithium and carbon • In the same period • Uranium and curium • In the same period and in the actinide series Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  5. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  6. Atomic Numbers and Mass Numbers • All atoms are composed of the same particles… • Different numbers of protons in the nucleus • Atomic number = # protons in the nucleus • Atomic mass number = # protons + # neutrons • Same elements have same # protons but not always the same # neutrons, so may have different atomic masses • Ex: Chlorine atoms have 17 protons, some have 18 neutrons, some have 20 neutrons = Chlorine isotopes • Isotopes: atoms of the same element that have a different number of neutrons • Chlorine-35, Chlorine-37 • # protons? # neutrons? Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  7. How to Read the Periodic Table? • The number at the top is the atomic number = # protons in the nucleus • Chemical symbol - one or two letters; temporary symbols for not-yet named elements have three-letter symbols • Name of element • number at bottom is the “average atomic mass” of all the isotopes of the elements Color of symbol is the state of matter at room temperature Color of background color of box indicates whether metal, nonmetal, or metalloid (5.3) Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  8. Groups and Periods • Elements in a vertical column show similarities in their chemical and physical properties • Known as a group • Labeled by a number at the top of the column • Sometimes a group is called a family of elements because they seem to be related • Ex: Group 17 – “Halogen” group • Tend to combine easily with other elements and compounds, especially elements in Gropus 1 and 2 • Different physical properties • At room temperatures: Flourine and chlorine are gases, bromine is a liquid, iodine and astatine are solids • Ex: Group 1 – • Some metals – lithium, sodium, potassium, for example – react violently with water • Horizontal row in the periodic table = period • Properties of elements change in a predictable way from one end of a period to the other • Ex: Period 3 = elements on far left are metals, far right are nonmetals Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  9. The periodic table has distinct regions • Like a map! • Different areas indicate the properties of the elements • Three main regions: • Metals on the left (yellow) • Nonmetals on the right (except hydrogen) (green) • Metalloids in between (purple) • Reactive – how likely an element is to undergo a chemical change – combining with other materials • Atoms in Groups 1 and 17 are the most reactive • Group 18 is the least reactive Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  10. To which group do most elements belong? • Most elements are metals – look! (yellow) • Metals • elements that conduct electricity and heat well • have a shiny appearance • Can be shaped easily by pounding, bending, wire • Most are solids at room temperature (except _______) Na - sodium Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  11. Brass – zinc &copper • Bronze - copper & tin • Steel – mostly iron (some carbon) Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  12. Reactive Metals (Group 1) • Group 1 – the “alkali metals” • Sodium, potassium – often stored in oil to keep from air as they react rapidly with oxygen and water vapor • Ions: ____ and ____ are important in living cells (hint: which side of the periodic table loses/gains electrons) • Group 2 – “alkaline earth metals” • Less reactive than the alkali metals, more reactive than other metals • Calcium ions – essential to bones, teeth • Magnesium – light, inexpensive metal – combined with other metals – airplane frames Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  13. Transition Metals • Groups 3-12 • Copper, gold, silver, iron • Generally less reactive than most other metals • Jewelry and coins: Gold and silver – easily shaped and not reactive – used for thousands of years • Artifacts found in museums: unchanged -they last • Coins: Dimes and quarters made of nickel – pennies made of zinc and copper • Industry: • Iron – main part of steel • Electric wires & Pipes – copper • Modern Technology – tungsten – incandescent light bulbs • Alloys – two or more metals combined • Can be stronger , less likely to corrode, or easier to shape than pure metals • Steel: iron + [nickel, chromium, manganese] (stronger than iron alone) • Brass: copper + zinc (stronger than either alone) • Jewelry: silver + copper (stronger than silver alone) Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  14. Rare Earth Elements (metals) • Top row of the two rows of metals shown outside the main body of the periodic table • “Lanthanides” (they follow lanthanum on the table) • Once believed only to be found in tiny amounts in Earth’s crust • Not as rare as originally thought – just hard to isolate in pure form Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  15. Nonmetals and metalloids • Have a wide range of properties • Nonmetals: • Many are gases at room temperature • One is a liquid (Bromine) • Solids often have a dull surface and cannot be shaped by hammering or wires • Poor conductors of heat and electric current • Ex: air – nitrogen and oxygen – both gases, different properties • Nitrogen is fairly unreactive • Oxygen readily reacts – rusting, burning Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  16. Halogens (nonmetals) • Group 17 • Halogens means “forming salts” • Very reactive • Often used to kill harmful microorganisms • Ex: chlorine, iodine Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  17. Noble Gases (nonmetals) • Group 18 • Noble = inert gases – almost never react with other elements • Ex: colorful lights – pass an electric current through tubes of neon, krypton, xenon, argon gases glow Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  18. Metalloids • Properties of both metals and nonmetals • Most common is silicon (Si) • The second most common atoms in Earth’s crust • Uses: • Semiconductors found in electronic devices • Conduct electricity under some conditions and not under others • Used in computer chips (silicon, gallium, germanium) Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  19. Some atoms can change their identity • How is identity determined? • # protons in _________ • The nucleus • Chemical changes do not affect the nucleus, so chemical changes don’t change one type of atom into another • BUT…conditions may cause the number of protons to change…does this change the type of atom? • Yes! Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  20. Some atoms can change their identity • Stability of a nucleus depends on the right balance of protons and neutrons • Too few or too many neutrons, the nucleus may become unstable • Particles are then produced from the nucleus of the atom to restore balance • Results in a release of energy • May change the number of protons  different element! • Radioactivity – the process by which atoms produce energy and particles • Isotope is radioactive if the nucleus has too many or too few neutrons • Radioactive isotopes are more rare for lighter elements more common for heavier • Measured using a Geiger counter – detects particles from the break up of the atomic nucleus - clicks Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  21. Radioactivity and Medicine • Used to diagnose and treat patients • Destroy harmful tumors • Monitor activity of certain organs in body – inject a radioactive isotope and determine where and how the body is using a substance • Large does are harmful • Damage or kill cells • Energy from its particles can burn the skin • Prolonged exposure linked to cancer Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties

  22. Radioactive Decay • Energy and particles are produced from the nucleus of radioactive atoms • Radioactive decay – when the number of protons, and the identity of the atom, changes • Occurs at a steady rate characteristic of the particular isotope • Half-life – the amount of time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a particular sample to decay • Ex: 1000 atoms of radioactive isotope with half-life of 1 year…how many atoms would have changed one year later? After another year? • Not affected by temperature or pressure • Can range from fractions of a second to billions of years • Simulation: http://www.colorado.edu/physics/2000/isotopes/radioactive_decay3.html • Animation: http://holbert.faculty.asu.edu/eee460/eee460.html Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table - A substance’s atomic structure determines its physical and chemical properties