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Lesson 10. Examining the Protocol Suites. Objectives. At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:. Differentiate between TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, and AppleTalk. Describe the addressing schemes used by IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.

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objectives

Objectives

At the end of this presentation, you will be able to:

slide3

Differentiate between TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, and AppleTalk.

Describe the addressing schemes used by IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.

Explain how IPX/SPX and AppleTalk relate to the OSI model.

protocol suites most important for network

Protocol Suites Most Important for Network+

TCP/IP – Pioneered by UNIX and required for the Internet

IPX/SPX – Pioneered by Novell in its NetWare NOSs

NetBEUI – Used primarily in Microsoft products

AppleTalk – Used primarily in Macintosh products

the router is a device that

The Router is a device that:

Connects multiple networks together.

Determines the optimal path to direct packets from one network to another.

Router

slide7

Network A

Router 1

Router 2

Router 3

Router 4

Network D

router tasks

Router Tasks

Determine the optimal path from one network to another.

Switch the packet to the selected path.

This is called routing.

A protocol is routable if its packets can be routed from one network to another via a router.

routable and non routable protocols

Routable and Non-routable Protocols

TCP/IP – Routable

IPX/SPX – Routable

AppleTalk – Routable

NetBEUI – Non-routable

ipx spx

IPX/SPX

Suite of Protocols used by Novell’s NetWare.

Native protocol for early versions of NetWare.

Starting with NetWare 5.0 you can choose between IPX/SPX and TCP/IP. Both are natively supported.

Skinny and fast protocol suite compared to TCP/IP.

Routable protocol

slide11

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

TCP

SPX

Transport

IP

IPX

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC-

net

PPP

Data Link

Physical

slide12

Earlier NetWare Versions

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

SPX

Transport

IPX

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC-

net

PPP

Data Link

Physical

slide13

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

TCP

SPX

Transport

IP

IPX

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC-

net

PPP

Data Link

Physical

slide14

Ethernet

Token Ring

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC-

net

PPP

Data Link

Physical

slide15

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

4. Transport

IP

IPX

3. Network

slide16

OSI Model

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

TCP

SPX

4. Transport

IP

IPX

3. Network

Required for

Connecting to the

Internet

slide17

OSI Model

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

TCP

SPX

4. Transport

IP

IPX

3. Network

slide18

OSI Model

NetWare 5.0 and Higher

IPX

3. Network

Handles Address

Resolution and Routing.

the ipx address format

The IPX Address Format

Node Address

Network Address

48-bits

32-bits

mac address

MAC Address

A 48-bit address that uniquely identifies a node on a network.

A node is defined as any device that has a MAC address.

slide22

The MAC Address converted to Hexadecimal

000000000110011100000111110000011010101010011111

0000

0000

0110

0111

0000

0111

1100

0001

1010

1010

1001

1111

0

0

6

7

0

7

B

1

A

A

9

F

with ipx the node address is usually the mac address

With IPX, the node address is usually the MAC address.

Network Address

Node Address = MAC Address

2F-3E-4D-5C

00-67-07-B1-AA-9F

48-bits

32-bits

ipx is to the ipx spx protocol as ip is to the tcp ip protocol

IPX is to the IPX/SPX protocol as IP is to the TCP/IP protocol.

Both IPX and IP are in the Network Layer.

Both handle Address Resolution and Routing.

slide25

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

4. Transport

Ensures that messages are delivered

error-free and in the proper sequence.

slide26

Microsoft Windows

OSI Model

TCP

SPX

4. Transport

Provide Connection-oriented Transport.

two types of message delivery services

Two types of message delivery services:

Connectionless – Comparable to normal mail delivery.

Connection-oriented – Comparable to Registered Mail, Return Receipt

connection oriented transmission

Connection-oriented Transmission:

Through a series of hand-shakes, a specific delivery path is agreed upon.

Each packet is acknowledged as it is received.

Every packet follows the same route.

A very reliable form of delivery.

A relatively slow form of delivery.

connectionless transmission

Connectionless Transmission:

Packets are sent via any available path.

Packets are numbered because they may become lost or duplicated, or they may be received out of order.

Faster than connection-oriented transmissions.

Less reliable than connection-oriented transmissions.

slide30

NetWare

OSI Model

SPX

4. Transport

The connection-oriented transport

protocol for the IPX/SPX suite.

spx is to the ipx spx protocol as tcp is to the tcp ip protocol

SPX is to the IPX/SPX protocol as TCP is to the TCP/IP protocol.

Both SPX and TCP are in the Network Layer.

Both are Connection-oriented Transport Protocols.

slide32

NetWare

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

TCP

SPX

Transport

IP

IPX

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

ARC-

net

PPP

Data Link

Physical

appletalk1

AppleTalk

Developed by Apple Computer for its Macintosh line of computers.

AppleTalk Hierarchy: Sockets, Nodes, Networks, Zones.

Routable

Through the use of the proper Client, it can connect to Netware, Unix, and Windows NT/2000-based networks.

slide35

AppleTalk

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)

Transport

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Data Link

Physical

slide36

AppleTalk

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Data Link

Physical

slide37

AppleTalk

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

Transport

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)

Network

Data Link

Physical

appletalk network addressing scheme

AppleTalk Network Addressing Scheme

Network

Address

Node

Address

Socket

Address

16-Bits

8-Bits

8-Bits

appletalk uses dynamic addressing

AppleTalk uses Dynamic Addressing.

As opposed to the static arrangement used by IPX/SPX.

AppleTalk automatically assigns each node a network address each time the node connects to the network.

appletalk allows the network administrator to divide the network into zones

AppleTalk allows the Network Administrator to divide the network into Zones.

Zones are defined when the Network Administrator configures the AppleTalk Network.

Zones are logical groups of nodes or networks.

Examples: Finance Zone, Sales Zone, Engineering Zone, etc.

slide41

AppleTalk

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

Routing

Name

Binding

Trans-

action

Echo

Transport

Network

Data Link

Physical

slide42

AppleTalk

OSI Model

Application

Presentation

Session

AppleTalk Transaction Protocol (ATP)

Transport

Datagram Delivery Protocol (DDP)

AppleTalk ARP (AARP)

Network

802.3

802.5

FDDI

LocalTalk

Data Link

Physical

connecting a macintosh to a netware server

Connecting a Macintosh to a Netware Server

Install Netware Client for MAC OS on each Macintosh workstation.

Uses IPX to communicate on the network.

Enables Macintosh user to access NetWare Servers.

Allows users to access all resources to which they have rights.

Does not allow Macintoshes and PCs to share AppleTalk Printers.

Install NetWare Services for AppleShare on one NetWare Server.

connecting a macintosh to a windows nt 2000 server

Connecting a Macintosh to a Windows NT/2000 Server

File Services for Macintosh

Print Services for Macintosh

Collectively called File and Print Services for Macintosh.

They allow Windows clients and servers to share files and printers with Macintosh workstations.

file and print services for macintosh

File and Print Services for Macintosh

Configures Windows NT/2000 servers with the AppleTalk protocol.

Installed in Windows 2000 Server from the Control Panel using Add/Remove Programs.

cross platform network printing

Cross Platform Network Printing

The page description language is often a barrier to cross platform printing.

Macintosh and many Windows printers use a page description language called PostScript.

Macintosh and Windows machines can both print to the same PostScript printer if they use the same protocol, or if they go through a Print Server.

solving cross platform network printing problems

Solving Cross Platform Network Printing Problems

Install a print server.

Install a special program or hardware (usually on the Macintosh) that allows the platforms to coexist.

connecting a windows nt 2000 to unix linux

Connecting a Windows NT/2000 to UNIX/Linux

Samba allows a Windows NT server or client to access a Unix server as if it were another Windows NT machine.

A free software suite available from www.samba.org

slide50

Differentiate between TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NetBEUI, and AppleTalk.

Describe the addressing schemes used by IPX/SPX and AppleTalk.

Explain how IPX/SPX and AppleTalk relate to the OSI model.