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Lesson 10

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  1. Lesson 10 Lecture Notes

  2. Review • Why did Jewish identity change after emancipation? • What are the three categories of Jewish identity that develop after emancipation? • What are some things that caused Jews to feel estranged from their people? • Why did some Jews convert to Christianity?

  3. Jewish Identity Challenged and Redefined Part II

  4. “Hear, O Israel” • Primary Source Study (p.267-268, from the beginning to “German character and education” and from “Look at Yourselves in the mirror” to “like a greyhoud.” • Excerpt from article by Walter Rathenau (1867-1922) • Additional Questions • What is the title from? How does Rathenau use it? • What about Jews doesn’t Rathenau like? • Why would we call Rathenau a self-hating Jew?

  5. Jewishness as Unique Sensibility I • Gustav Landauer (1870-1919) • Grew up in a Jewish family • Studied philosophy, worked as journalist, translator and novelist • Arrested and imprisoned for civil disobedience • Outwardly, a German intellectual

  6. Jewishness as Unique Sensibility II • Estranged from religion, but not Judaism • Inspired by Martin Buber • Spiritual sensibility that is independent of doctrine and ritual prescriptions • “Jewishness is an Inalienable Spiritual Sensibility” (1913) • Jewish and German – complex person • Not a religious connection • Jewish character • Jewish features

  7. In Defiance of Anti-Semites I • Arthur Koestler (1905-1983) • Assimilated Jewish family • Zionist • Saw the need for a homeland because of anti-Semitism

  8. In Defiance of Anti-Semites II • “A Valedictory Message to the Jewish People” (1949) • Desire to return to Zion is at core of Judaism • Dilemma – now can return • Return to Israel or move on • No longer abandoning a suffering people

  9. Religious Faith I • Franz Rosenzweig (1886-1929) • Agnostic • Plans to convert • Has spiritual reawakening in a synagogue • Study as important to faith

  10. Religious Faith II • Lehrhaus • Inspired assimilated Jews to rediscover their roots • “Jewish Learning and the Return to Judaism” (1920) • An inner remembering • Study for connection and practice • Closed by Nazis • American schools based on Rosenzweig’s model

  11. “Holocaust Jew” I • Jean Amery (1912-1978) • Child of Catholic mother/Jewish father • Did not have a Jewish upbringing • Defined racially as a Jew by Nazis (Nuremberg Laws) • Survives Auschwitz

  12. “Holocaust Jew” II • Reflections of a ‘Holocaust Jew’ (1966) • “I cannot be one [a Jew]. And yet must be one.” • Identity is developed early and his was not a Jewish identity. But Nazis made him one. • Isolated, solitary Jew – not one with connection to generations of Jews

  13. Class Discussion • Do Asssimilationist and Affirmationist responses to identity still exist today? • How have you seen them exemplified? • Have some disappeared or become irrelevant? • Are there any identities that you would add to these categories?

  14. Next Class: • Read pages 302 - 371 • Special attention to documents #: 4, 8, 14, 15, 16, 19, 22, 23, 25, and 26 • Think about: • Does Emancipation change anti-Semitism? • What is political anti-Semitism? • What is racial anti-Semitism? • Do either of these still exist today? If so, how?