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Long Term Evolution LTE. The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum 12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka. Sanjeev Banzal Telecom Regulatory Authority of India sbanzal@gmail.com. Table of contents. Introduction.

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slide1

Long Term Evolution

LTE

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011

Colombo, Sri Lanka

SanjeevBanzal

Telecom Regulatory Authority of India

sbanzal@gmail.com

introduction
Introduction

Spectrum is a finite and scarce but non-exhaustible natural resource which is a vital input for wireless services

Rapid development of wireless technology has ensured that there is an increasing range of valuable uses of the spectrum

With competing users, uses and growth of wireless services, the demand for spectrum has tremendously increased.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

introduction1
Introduction

The trend of modern communications is towards mobility, with increasingly higher data rates/ speeds, for which wireless is the only option

The requirements of captive applications are also growing.

All these have resulted in greater demands/ pressure on the already scarce RF spectrum resource

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

introduction2
Introduction

Shortage of spectrum will be setback to innovations, competition, businesses and consumers.

Making spectrum available at a time when convergence is causing rapid and unpredictable change poses a severe challenge.

Advances in technology create the potential for systems to use spectrum more efficiently and to be much more tolerant of interference than in the past.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

introduction3
Introduction
  • With the availability of higher data speeds, the user requirements are also continually increasing wrt:
    • different services and applications,
    • expecting a dynamic, continuing stream of new capabilities that are ubiquitous and available across a range of devices using a single subscription and a single identity.
  • Requirement for new radio access technologies to satisfy the anticipated demands for higher bandwidth services is increasing.
  • IMT and IMT-Advanced technologies are the answers to these requirements

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

imt and imt advanced technologies
IMT and IMT-Advanced Technologies

LTE, LTE Advanced and Wireless MAN-Advanced, are designed to enable high speed Internet/Broadband at anytime, anywhere.

These systems facilitate higher bandwidth, higher data rate and support higher level of user-level customization.

As per ITU for IMT-Advanced technologies, the targeted peak data rates are up to 100 Mbit/s for high mobility and up to 1 Gbit/s for low mobility scenario. Scalable bandwidths up to at least 40 MHz should be provided

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

imt advanced technologies key features
IMT-Advanced Technologies-Key Features

High degree of commonality of functionality worldwide while retaining the flexibility to support a wide range of services and applications in a cost efficient manner;

compatibility of services within IMT and with fixed networks;

capability of interworking with other radio access systems;

high quality mobile services;

User equipment suitable for worldwide use;

User-friendly applications, services and equipment;

Worldwide roaming capability;

slide9

LTE and LTE-Advanced Technologies

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

lte and lte advanced technologies
LTE and LTE-Advanced Technologies
  • LTE and Wimax technologies are available since 2009/2006.
  • Current versions are called ‘LTE-Advanced’ and WirelessMAN Advanced respectively.
  • Qualifies IMT-advanced technologies make use of same key technologies:
    • Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplex (OFDMA)
    • Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO) and
    • System Architecture Evolution (SAE)

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

multiple input multiple output mimo
Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)
  • Uses multiple transmitter and receiver antennas, which allow independent channels to be created in space.
  • Various Approaches for MIMO:
    • Space diversity:- to improve the communication reliability by decreasing the sensitivity to fading by picking up multiple copies of the same signal at different locations in space.
    • Beamforming:- antenna elements are used to adjust the strength of the transmitted and received signals, based on their direction for focusing of energy.
    • Spatial Multiplexing:- Increased capacity, reliability, coverage, reduction in power requirement by introducing additional spatial channels that are exploited by using space-time coding

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

orthogonal frequency division multiple access ofdma
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
  • Based on the idea of dividing a given high-bit-rate data stream into several parallel lower bit-rate streams and modulating each stream on separate carrier – often called sub-carriers or tones.
  • Multi-carrier modulation scheme minimize inter-symbol interference (ISI) by making the symbol time large enough so that the channel-induced delays are an insignificant (<10%) fraction of the symbol duration.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

orthogonal frequency division multiple access ofdma1
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
  • OFDM is a spectrally efficient version of multi-carrier modulation where the sub-carriers are selected such that they are all orthogonal to one another over the symbol duration, thereby avoiding the need to have non overlapping sub-carrier channels to eliminate inter-carrier interference .
  • Guard intervals are used between OFDM symbols. By making the guard intervals larger than the expected multi-path delay spread, ISI can be completely eliminated

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

orthogonal frequency division multiple access ofdma2
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA)
  • OFDM can be used as a multi-access scheme, where the available sub-carriers may be divided into several groups of sub-carriers called sub-channels. Different sub channels may be allocated to different users as a multiple access mechanism. This type of multi access scheme is called OFDMA.
  • OFDMA is essentially a hybrid of FDMA and TDMA. Users are dynamically assigned sub-carriers (FDMA) in different time slots (TDMA).
  • OFDMA is a flexible multiple access technique that can accommodate many users with widely varying applications, data rates and QoS requirements.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

long term evolution lte speed
Long Term Evolution(LTE): Speed
  • Capabilities:-
    • Scalable bandwidth up to 20 MHz, covering 1.4, 3, 5, 10, 15, and 20 MHz
    • Up/Downlink peak data rates up to 86.4/326 Mbps with 20 MHz bandwidth
    • Operation in both TDD and FDD modes
    • Reduced latency, up to 10 ms round-trip times between user equipment and the base station, and upto less than 100 ms transition times from inactive to active

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

long term evolution lte specifications and speed
Long Term Evolution(LTE): Specifications and Speed

LTE specification

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

long term evolution lte advanced key features
Long Term Evolution(LTE)-Advanced: Key Features
  • Features:-
    • Compatibility of services
    • Enhanced peak data rates to support advanced services and applications (100 Mbit/s for high and 1 Gbit/s for low mobility).
    • Spectrum efficiency: 3 times greater than LTE.
    • Peak spectrum efficiency: downlink – 30 bps/Hz; uplink – 6.75 bps/Hz.
    • Spectrum use: the ability to support scalable bandwidth use and spectrum aggregation where non-contiguous spectrum needs to be used.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

comparison of various imt advanced technologies
Comparison of various IMT (Advanced) technologies

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

slide19

LTE Equipment Categories

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

lte user equipment ue category
LTE-User Equipment (UE) Category
  • The LTE UE (User Equipment) categories or UE classes are needed:
    • to ensure that the base station (eNodeB) can communicate correctly with the user equipment.
    • So the base station is able to determine the performance of the UE and communicate with it accordingly.
  • Five different LTE UE categories defined with a wide range in the supported parameters and performance e.g. LTE category 1 does not support MIMO, but LTE UE category five supports 4x4 MIMO.

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

slide21
The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

slide22

Spectrum bands for Mobile Technologies (2G, IMT, IMT-Advanced) in SATRC countries

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

technologies 2g imt imt advanced in satrc countries
Technologies(2G, IMT, IMT-Advanced) in SATRC countries

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

Based on the data available, the bands being operated in SATRC Countries are:

450, 700, 800, 900, 1800, 1900 MHz; 2.1, 2.3, 2.5, 3.3-3.6GHz for various mobile services i.e. 2G,3G,BWA services, with various block sizes offered to the mobile operators.

Spectrum Allocation methodologies varies from Command& Control to auction.

spectrum bands identified for various wireless telecom services india
Spectrum Bands Identified for various wireless telecom services (INDIA)

2.4-2.4835, 5.15-5.35 & 5.725-5.875 GHz are unlicensed spectrum bands

24

challenges posed by technologies like lte in spectrum management
Challenges posed by technologies like LTE in spectrum management

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Identification of common spectrum bands
    • Common to SATRC Countries for Ubiquitous roaming
    • identify the availability of large chunk of spectrum in the identified bands
  • Spectrum management planning, allocation, allotment and regulations of frequency bands
    • to determine the use or uses that would best serve the public and government interest
challenges posed by technologies like lte in spectrum management1
Challenges posed by technologies like LTE in spectrum management

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • to tackle the transmissions interference unless the user frequencies are sufficiently separated in terms of frequency, geography or time
  • co-ordination with neighbouring countries, to mitigate the extent of harmful interference
  • need to strike a balance between reducing the extent of harmful interference, through careful planning, and enabling new and potentially valuable new services to enter the market
challenges posed by technologies like lte in spectrum management2
Challenges posed by technologies like LTE in spectrum management

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Frequency assignment and licensing
    • Traditional methods poses many challenges in terms of time, technological progress and the delivery of services, thus causing inefficient utilization of this precious resource.
    • to assign spectrum to those who value it the most and are able to utilize rationally and efficiently
challenges posed by technologies like lte in spectrum management3
Challenges posed by technologies like LTE in spectrum management

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Responsive to change
    • to devise procedures to ration current and future demand for radio spectrum between competing commercial and public service users
    • it would require a detailed knowledge of supply and demand trends, technology developments, and the relative value to society of alternative services
    • accumulation and assimilation of sufficient information to make a correct assignment of spectrum to optimise use over time
slide30

Recommendations

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

recommendations to overcome challenges
Recommendations to overcome challenges

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Audit the spectrum held by various agencies viz Govt agencies, telecom/broadcasting operators to see if they are employing spectrum efficient techniques.
  • Refarm the spectrum
    • Shift the existing users to other bands or they may be asked to start new technologies in the same band i.e. 2G spectrum bands may be refarmed for its usage for IMT or IMT advanced application and the operators may be asked to switch over to the new bands or it can be done after expiry of their validity of license.
recommendations to overcome challenges1
Recommendations to overcome challenges

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Refarm the spectrum
    • to permit the existing users to use the existing band for IMT advanced services however they may be required to pay to the Govt or regulator the balance the price they already have paid and the price which can be discovered using auction methodology or market driven mechanism.
  • Change the traditional way of spectrum planning and engineering:-Taking into consideration the interest of the operators and revenue to the Govt. The spectrum should be assigned to those operators who value it the most.
recommendations to overcome challenges2
Recommendations to overcome challenges

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

  • Spectrum sharing and trading:- Spectrum sharing, trading and spectrum pooling are some of the ways to efficiently utilize the available spectrum. In the developed countries spectrum trading and sharing is permitted in some of the spectrum bands. In light of new developments, this aspects has to be relooked into.
  • Exploring the new bands:new bands may be explored either for the telecom applications or for the application which are running in the bands meant for the telecom applications, so that other applications can be shifted to these bands and bands for the telecom applications may be made available for the telecom applications.
conclusions
Conclusions

As it is clear that new technologies are posing challenges to the world at large and SATRC countries in particular.

There is a need to face the challenges posed by the new technologies and adopt their policies and planning for the new changes in the environment

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka

questions
QUESTIONS

The Second meeting of SATRC Working Group on Spectrum

12-13 December 2011 Colombo, Sri Lanka