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Long Term Evolution (LTE) and System Architecture Evolution (SAE). v1.0 3rd May 2007. Contents. Why LTE/SAE? LTE Overview LTE technical objectives and architecture LTE radio interface RAN interfaces SAE architechture [3GPP TS 23.401] Functions of eNB Functions of aGW GTP-U tunneling

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contents
www.nethawk.fiContents
  • Why LTE/SAE?
  • LTE Overview
  • LTE technical objectives and architecture
  • LTE radio interface
  • RAN interfaces
  • SAE architechture [3GPP TS 23.401]
  • Functions of eNB
  • Functions of aGW
  • GTP-U tunneling
  • Non-3GPP access tunneling
  • Testing challenges with LTE
  • LTE standardisation status
why lte sae
www.nethawk.fiWhyLTE/SAE?
  • Packet Switched data is becoming more and more dominant
  • VoIP is the most efficient method to transfer voice data

 Need for PS optimised system

  • Amount of data is continuously growing

 Need for higher data rates at lower cost

  • Users demand better quality to accept new services
  • High quality needs to be quaranteed
  • Alternative solution for non-3GPP technologies (WiMAX) needed
  • LTE will enhance the system to satisfy these requirements.
lte overview
www.nethawk.fiLTE Overview
  • 3GPP R8 solution for the next 10 years
  • Peaks rates: DL 100Mbps with OFDMA, UL 50Mbps with SC-FDMA
  • Latency for Control-plane < 100ms, for User-plane < 5ms
  • Optimised for packet switched domain, supporting VoIP
  • Scaleable RF bandwidth between 1.25MHz to 20MHz
  • 200 users per cell in active state
  • Supports MBMS multimedia services
  • Uses MIMO multiple antenna technology
  • Optimised for 0-15km/h mobile speed and support for up-to 120-350 km/h
  • No soft handover, Intra-RAT handovers with UTRAN
  • Simpler E-UTRAN architecture: no RNC, no CS domain, no DCH
lte technical objectives and architecture
www.nethawk.fiLTE technical objectives and architecture
  • User throughput [/MHz]:
    • Downlink: 3 to 4 times Release 6 HSDPA
    • Uplink: 2 to 3 times Release 6 Enhanced Uplink
  • Downlink Capacity: Peak data rate of 100 Mbps in 20 MHz maximum bandwidth
  • Uplink capacity: Peak data rate of 50 Mbps in 20 MHz maximum bandwidth
  • Latency: Transition time less than 5 ms in ideal conditions (user plane), 100 ms control plane (fast connection setup)
slide6
www.nethawk.fi
  • Mobility: Optimised for low speed but supporting 120 km/h
    • Most data users are less mobile!
  • Simplified architecture: Simpler E-UTRAN architecture: no RNC, no CS domain, no DCH
  • Scalable bandwidth: 1.25MHz to 20MHz: Deployment possible in GSM bands.
lte radio interface
www.nethawk.fiLTE radio interface
  • New radio interface modulation: SC-FDMA UL and OFDMA DL
    • Frequency division, TTI 1 ms
    • Scalable bandwidth 1.25-20MHz
    • TDD and FDD modes
      • UL/DL in either in same or in another frequncy
    • OFDMA has multiple orthogonal subcarries that can be shared between users
      • quickly adjustable bandwith per user
    • SC-FDMA is technically similar to OFDMA but is better suited for uplink from hand-held devices
      • Single carrier, time space multiplexing
      • Tx consumes less power

From Ericsson, H. Djuphammar

lte sae keywords
www.nethawk.fiLTE/SAE Keywords
  • aGW Access Gateway
  • eNB Evolved NodeB
  • EPC Evolved Packet Core
  • E-UTRAN Evolved UTRAN
  • IASA Inter-Access System Anchor
  • LTE Long Term Evolution of UTRAN
  • MME Mobility Management Entity
  • OFDMA Ortogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access
  • SC-FDMA Single Carrier Frequency Division Multiple Access
  • SAE System Architecture Evolution
  • UPE User Plane Entity
ran interfaces

eNB

aGW

aGW

eNB

eNB

www.nethawk.fi

RAN interfaces
  • X2 interface between eNBs for handovers
  • Handover in 10 ms
  • No soft handovers
  • Interfaces using IP over E1/T1/ATM/Ethernet /…
  • Load sharing in S1
  • S1 divided to S1-U (to UPE) and S1-C (to CPE)
  • Single node failure has limited effects

S1

X2

S8

X2

slide10

Operator IP

services

(including IMS, PSS, ...)

PDN

SAE GW

SAE

GW

GPRS Core

MME UPE

GERAN

UTRAN

PCRF

HSS

eNB

eNB

Non-3GPP IP Access

www.nethawk.fi

  • SAE architecture [3GPP TS 23.401]

Gb

Iu

S6

Rx+

S7

X1

S3

S4

SGi

S1

S11

S5

aGW

X1

X2

S2

Evolved Packet Core

Evolved RAN

sae architechture 3gpp ts 23 401

TBD

eNB

aGW

aGW

SAE GW

PDN

SAE GW

TBD

PCRF

HSS

eNB

eNB

www.nethawk.fi

SAE architechture [3GPP TS 23.401]

S1

S7

S6a

S5

S11

X2

IASA

S8

SGi

S11

Operator IP

service, including

IMS

TBD

aGW = MME/UPE

Evolved RAN

functions of enb
www.nethawk.fiFunctions of eNB
  • Terminates RRC, RLC and MAC protocols and takes care of Radio Resource Management functions
    • Controls radio bearers
    • Controls radio admissions
    • Controls mobility connections
    • Allocates radio resources dynamically (scheduling)
    • Receives measurement reports from UE
  • Selects MME at UE attachment
  • Schedules and transmits paging messages coming from MME
  • Schedules and transmits broadcast information coming from MME & O&M
  • Decides measurement report configuration for mobility and scheduling
  • Does IP header compression and encryption of user data streams
functions of agw
www.nethawk.fiFunctions of aGW
  • Takes care of Mobility Management Entity (MME) functions
    • Manages and stores UE context
    • Generates temporary identities and allocates them to UEs
    • Checks authorization
    • Distributes paging messages to eNBs
    • Takes care of security protocol
    • Controls idle state mobility
    • Control SAE bearers
    • Ciphers & integrity protects NAS signaling
slide14
www.nethawk.fi
  • Takes care of User Plane Entity (UPE) functions
    • Terminates for idle state UEs the downlink data path and triggers/initiates paging when downlink data arrive for the UE.
    • Manages and stores UE contexts, e.g. parameters of the IP bearer service or network internal routing information.
    • Switches user plane for UE mobility
    • Terminates user plane packets for paging reasons
slide16

PDCP

PDCP

MAC

MAC

RRC

RRC

NAS

NAS

PHY

PHY

RLC

RLC

www.nethawk.fi

  • LTE Control Plane

UE

aGW

eNB

S1

slide17

PDCP

PDCP

MAC

MAC

PHY

PHY

RLC

RLC

IP

IP

www.nethawk.fi

  • LTE User Plane

aGW

UE

eNB

S1

gtp u tunneling

Application

GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

GTP-U

PDCP

TCP/UDP

u

RLC

UDP

UDP

UDP

UDP

Application

MAC

TCP/UDP

L2

L2

IP

IP

IP

IP

IPv6/v4

IPv6/v4

L2

L2

L2

L2

ENC

L1

L1

L1

L1

Radio L1

PDCP

GTP-U

GTP-U

L1

L1

RLC

UDP

UDP

MAC

IP

IP

L2

L2

L1

L1

Radio L1

www.nethawk.fi

GTP-U tunneling

Header compression & encryption

UE

UPE

eNB

SAE GW

PDN

SAE GW

Server

S1

S5

X1

S11

SGi

L2

L1

non 3gpp access tunneling

L2

L2

L1

L1

www.nethawk.fi

Non-3GPP access tunneling

UE

Server

PDN

SAE GW

HA

AP

SGi

S2

WLAN

Application

TCP/UDP

IPv4/6

IPv4/6

MIP

MIP

UDP

UDP

IP

IPv6/v4

IP

IP

IP

IP

L2

IP

L1

L2

L2

L2

L2

L1

L1

L1

L1

testing challenges with lte
www.nethawk.fiTesting challenges with LTE
  • How to optimize radio interface?
    • No radio measurement data available since no ”Iub-like” interface
  • Increased complexity of eNB
    • need for analysis of internal traffic
    • need for internal debugging
    • need for analysis of protocol data
  • How to test inter-eNB handovers?
  • How to test inter-system handovers?
  • How to test voice and video broadcast?
  • 10x higher throughput  How to verify eNB performance?
  • How to test application level QoS? How to verify SLA?
  • How to handle network management challenges?
lte standardisation status
www.nethawk.fiLTE standardisation status
  • Specification work done by 3GPP TS RAN.
  • First 3GPP specs expected 3Q2007
  • First trials expected 2008
  • Commercial release expected 2009
  • NetHawk is member in 3GPP and follows closely the standardisation work

2007 2008 2009

Commercial

Release

Specification

Trials

First 3GPP specs expected 3Q/2007