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The (Not So) Roaring 20s: Nativism and the Red Scare. Pee Dee TAH Institute Fall Meeting 2009 Dr. Witherspoon. Nativism. 1900, new anti-immigrant sentiment The “new immigrants” Not educated Religious conflicts Slow to adopt American ways Crime Radical political groups

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The not so roaring 20s nativism and the red scare l.jpg

The (Not So) Roaring 20s: Nativism and the Red Scare

Pee Dee TAH Institute

Fall Meeting 2009

Dr. Witherspoon


Nativism l.jpg
Nativism

  • 1900, new anti-immigrant sentiment

  • The “new immigrants”

    • Not educated

    • Religious conflicts

    • Slow to adopt American ways

    • Crime

    • Radical political groups

  • Economic arguments

  • Depressions, 1893, 1897

  • Racism


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Nativism Ascendant

  • 1894, Immigration Restriction League

    • Harvard graduates

    • Important pressure group

    • Henry Cabot Lodge, MA Rep. 1887-1924

    • Literacy Test

      • 1917 Immigration Act - Literacy

      • Results of literacy test:

        • Deterred a few immigrants

        • 1920-21: 800,000 admitted; 1400 denied

  • 1903, political opinion test


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The United States at War

  • The Committee on Public Information*

    • George Creel

    • Propaganda

    • Super-patriotism

    • Condemned all things German

  • Espionage Act 1917, Sedition Act 1918

    • 1500 Americans arrested


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The Red Scare

  • Communism

  • Bolshevik Revolution, 1917

  • Paranoia = Red Scare

  • Fear of communism = labor


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The Red Scare

  • Soldiers returning home = turmoil

  • Problems for workers:

    • Injury

    • No regulation

    • Natural problems

    • Day and seasonal labor

    • Unemployment


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The Red Scare

  • 1919 Seattle shipyard strike

    • Oly Hanson

  • May-Day plot

  • Investigations, bombings, strikes

  • A. Mitchell Palmer bombed, June 1919


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The Red Scare

  • Palmer Raids

  • Lusk Committee

  • Boston police strike, Sept. 1919


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The Ku Klux Klan, reborn

  • “Birth of a Nation,” 1915

  • The new Klan:

    • anti-black

    • anti-Catholic

    • anti-Jewish

    • 4.5 million members

    • peak 1924

  • Decline of the Klan, 1924-28

    • David Curtis Stephenson


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The Red Scare

  • Ends May, 1920

  • Sacco-Vanzetti case, executed 1927



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Nativism Triumphant

  • Anti-immigration bill, 1920

    • Passes House, 196-42

    • Senate, Dillingham Quota Bill

      • Limit total # of immigrants

      • Determine a % for each ethnic group

      • Europeans at 5% of Census, 1910 (about 600k)

    • House again, 3% of Census (about 350k)

    • Signed by Harding


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Nativism Triumphant

  • Immigration Act of 1924:

    • 1924, nativists to revise Dillingham

      • Even fewer immigrants

      • Based on 1890 Census: effects?

        • Italians drop from 42,000 to 2,000

        • Polish drop from 31,000 to 6,000


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Nativism Triumphant

  • Immigration Act of 1924:

    • Uses 1890 Census

    • Reduces totals from 3% to 2%

    • About 300,000 annually

    • Japanese “aliens ineligible to citizenship”

    • Tightened administration

    • Deportation easier

    • Albert Johnson

    • Was it a good thing?

    • Replaced by Immigration Act, 1965