European claims in the muslim world. Chapter 12. 3. I. Muslim Regions: Pre-New Imperialism. A. Extended from Western Africa to SE Asia B. 1500 CE: 3 giant Muslim empires ruled but declined by the 1700s 1. Ottomans in the Middle East. 2. Safavids in Persia. 3. Mughals in India.
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European claims in the muslim world Chapter 12. 3
I. Muslim Regions: Pre-New Imperialism • A. Extended from Western Africa to SE Asia • B. 1500 CE: 3 giant Muslim empires ruled but declined by the 1700s • 1. Ottomans in the Middle East
2. Safavids in Persia • 3. Mughalsin India
Europeans’ Flex Some Muscle! • C. Rise of Reform Movements • D. European Imperialism • 1. Through diplomacy and military threats, European power won treaties giving them favorable trading terms. • Also demanded special rights for Europeans residing in Muslim lands and would resort to intervening in local affairs.
II. Problems for the Ottoman Empire • A. Nationalist Revolts Break Out: result in a weakened multiethnic empire • 1. Peoples in North Africa, Eastern Europe, and the Middle East threatened to break away. • 2. In the Balkans, Greeks, Serbs, Bulgarians, and Romanians gained their independence. • 3. While rebellions are subdued in neighboring Arabia, Lebanon, and Armenia, Egypt slips out of Ottoman control.
Guess who’s drooling?!!! • B. Hungry New Imperialists Salivate – dream, plot, Scheme!!! • 1. France – after seizing Algeria in the 1830s, looked forward to the crumbling of the Ottoman Empire. • 2. Russia – wanted some action: resources and prestige • 3. Britain saw Russia as a threat to its own power in the Mediterraeanbeyond to India. • 4. Germany – in 1898, the empire hoped to increase its influence in the region by building a Berlin-to-Bagdad railway.
What’s an empire to do? C. Attempts to Modernize Prove Problematic
The unknown genocide… in the shadows of WW I • 3. Resulting tensions triggered a brutal genocide of Armenians, a Christian people concentrated in the eastern mountains of the empire. • a. Genocide is the attempt to eliminate a racial, political, or cultural group. • b. Muslim Turks accused Christian Armenians of supporting Russianplans against the Ottoman Empire. • c. Estimates range from 600,000 to 1.5 Million dead
III. Egypt – free, not for long!!! • A. Muhammad Ali • 1. Not the boxer but “the father of Modern Egypt” • 2. Responsible for modernization via participation in world trade and the establishment of a modern Egypt. • 3. After his death, successors fell prey to hungry imperialists. • B. Suez Canal
1. 1858: A French entrepreneur, Ferdinand de Lessesps, organized a company to build the Suez Canal. • 2. 1875: Egypt was unable to repay loans it had contracted for the canal and other projects. • 3. To pay for the debt, shares were sold to the British who were gain a controlling interest in the canal.
C. Becoming a British Protectorate • 1. When Egyptian nationalists revolted against foreign influences in 1882, Britain made Egypt a protectorate. • 2. In theory, the governor of Egypt was still an official leader. • 3. In reality, the Egyptian leader followed policies dictated by Britain.
IV. Persia • A. Europeans were satisfied with establishing spheres of influence. • B. However, with the discovery of oil in the early 1900s, intensified interest. • C. Both Russia and Britain plotted for control of Persian oil fields and persuaded the government to grant concessions or special rights for foreign powers. Many nationalists were outraged by this.