European Challenges to the Muslim World C 25 section 3 GRAB A BOOK & join me on Page 627 EQs: Why was the Ottoman Empire crumbling? How and Why did Europeans gain influence in the Middle East? How did Muslims react to European influences?
Section Summary • By the beginning of the 1800s, the Ottoman and the Safavid Empires began to feel pressure from Europe (Britain, France and Russia) • At the same time, the rulers of each had lost control of their own subjects • The Wahhabi in Arabia and Mahdi in Sudan stressed pure Islamic ideas, something the Ottomans ignored • In boundary territories, peoples revolted against the Ottomans (North Africa, Greece, Serbia, Bulgaria, Romania, Lebanon, Armenia) • As a result, emerging European empires began to take some of these territories away
Section Summary • In response the Ottomans did several things: • They westernized, inviting in European advisors to reform their country…the reforms helped, but only caused social tension…later Sultans eventually threw out the Europeans and became tyrants • A group of liberals called the Young Turks overthrew the Sultan and instituted further reform • These Young Turks then set out to eliminate threats within their empire, blaming the Christian Armenians for most of the problems…this led to a 25 year genocide of Armenians • In 1914, the Turks joined forces with the Germans in a last attempt to save their empire • Meanwhile, Egypt had become a semi-independent state…its leader decided to modernize and sought to build a canal…however, it became indebted to the British, who eventually took over in 1882 • In Iran, the Safavids lost power to the Qajars, who attempted reforms, but could not resist European intervention…a division emerged between those who supported European influence and those who supported traditional Islamic law
For the remainder of time… • Read Chapter 25 sec 3, pages 627-630 • Complete worksheet and puzzle • DUE BEFORE YOU LEAVE • NEXT WEEK: Lawrence of Arabia